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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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COPD CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


1
COPD
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Juliana Tambellini University of Pittsburgh
2
COPD
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • A progressive disease that affects the lungs,
    making it difficult to breathe

3
COPD an umbrella term
  • Umbrella term used to describe progressive lung
    diseases which include
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Refractory (irreversible) asthma
  • Severe bronchiectasis

4
Other names for COPD
  • Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COLD)
  • Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD)

5
COPD
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a
    lung ailment that is characterized by a
    persistent blockage of airflow from the lungs.
  • It is an under-diagnosed, life-threatening lung
    disease that interferes with normal breathing and
    is not fully reversible.

6
Understanding COPD
  • Critical to first understand normal lung function

Image courtesy of The National Institute of
health
7
Lung structure and function
Biological Science Freeman, 2010
8
Lungs with copd
Image courtesy of The National Institute of
health
9
Causes
  • Most cases of COPD occur as a result of long-term
    exposure to lung irritants that damage the lungs
    and the airways
  •  The most common irritant that causes COPD is
    cigarette smoke
  • In rare cases, a genetic condition called alpha-1
    antitrypsin deficiency may play a role in causing
    COPD

10
Who is at risk?
  • People who smoke or are exposed to smoke
  • People who have a family history of COPD are more
    likely to develop the disease if they smoke
  • Long-term exposure to other lung irritants also
    is a risk factor for COPD
  • Almost 90 of COPD deaths occur in low- and
    middle-income countries, where effective
    strategies for prevention and control are not
    always implemented or accessible.

11
Symptoms
  • breathlessness
  • abnormal sputum (a mix of saliva and mucus in the
    airway)
  • a chronic cough
  • daily activities can become very difficult as
    the condition gradually worsens

12
diagnosis
  • A simple diagnostic test called "spirometry
    measures how much air a person can inhale and
    exhale, and how fast air can move into and out of
    the lungs
  • Spirometry can detect
  • COPD long before its
  • Symptoms appear. 

13
Treatment
  • COPD has no cure
  • Quitting smoking is the most important step an
    individual can take to treat COPD
  • Other treatments for COPD may include medicines,
    vaccines, pulmonary rehabilitation
    (rehab), oxygen therapy, and surgery

14
Managing copd
  • COPD symptoms usually slowly worsen over time
  • A cold, the flu, or a lung infection may cause
    symptoms to intensify
  • Prescription antibiotics may treat infections and
    other medicines, such as bronchodilators and
    inhaled steroids, can help facilitate breathing

15
Managing COPD
  • Avoid lung irritants
  • Get ongoing care
  • Manage the disease and its symptoms
  • Prepare for emergencies

16
Copd statistics
  • The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
    (NHLBI) estimates that 12 million adults have
    COPD, and another 12 million are undiagnosed or
    developing COPD
  • Estimated that over 210 million people worldwide
    have COPD

17
Copd statistics
  • COPD cost the U.S. economy about 32.1 billion,
    in direct and indirect costs in 2002
  • A person with COPD dies every four minutes in the
    U.S
  • COPD will be the third leading cause of death in
    the U.S. by 2020

18
Who response
  • Raise awareness about the global epidemic of
    chronic diseases
  • Create more healthy environments, especially for
    poor and disadvantaged populations
  • Decrease common chronic disease risk factors,
    such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical
    inactivity
  • Prevent premature deaths and avoidable
    disabilities from major chronic diseases

19
Sources
  • The World Health Organization
  • http//www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs315/en
    /
  • The COPD Foundation
  • http//www.copdfoundation.org/
  • The US Department of Health and Human Services
  • http//www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Copd/
    Copd_WhatIs.html
  • National Heart Lung and Blood Institute
  • http//www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/lung/other/
    copd_breathe.htm
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention
  • http//www.cdc.gov/
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