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Postmodern Pedagogy

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Title: Postmodern Pedagogy


1
Postmodern Pedagogy
  • Changing Learning Paradigms
  • Dr. Mark Taylor

2
Issues
  • Generational Issues in Higher Ed
  • Traditionals, Boomers, Xers, NeXters
  • Premodern, modern, postmodern times
  • Millennials vs. NeXters
  • Traits of Generation NeXt
  • Working with Generation Next
  • Postmodern Pedagogy.

3
Topics
  • With entering students
  • skills?
  • expectations?
  • With educational processes
  • compliance?
  • With workplace outcomes
  • employer feedback?

4
  • Issues in the classroom
  • Interfering with what?
  • What would be helpful?

5
Imbedded Assessment
  • Non graded activities that evaluate learning
    progress
  • Audience response systems
  • Clickers
  • The finger
  • Must be private

6
Gen NeXt Modal traits
  • Civility/ character issues
  • Intellectual issues
  • Academic engagement
  • Reduced self-efficacy
  • Risk taking
  • Conformity
  • Relationship issues
  • Mental health issues
  • Parent issues
  • Supervised
  • Diverse/ Diversity
  • Technoliterate
  • Stressed
  • Work readiness
  • Consumerism
  • Entitlement
  • Negotiation
  • Instant gratification
  • Short event horizon
  • Entertainment
  • Value Free
  • Adaptable/ Pragmatic
  • Excellence
  • Self-interested
  • Skeptical
  • Commitment reluctance
  • Cynical/ distrustful
  • Safety issues

7
Po-mo consumer student
  • Commodity model
  • Consumer/ market oriented outcomes
  • Monetary, not developmental goals
  • Expects choices / options
  • Expects to negotiate
  • May feel entitled to outcome
  • Personally excellent/ little perceived need to
    change.
  • Increase ownership of developmental goals
  • and responsibility for reaching them.

8
Negotiation
  • Our postmodern, consumer students want and expect
    to be able to negotiate
  • Anticipate
  • Structure
  • Offer appropriate opportunities
  • Clear rubrics
  • Flexible outcome dates/ mastery?

9
Intellectual issues
  • Concrete (not abstract/ reflective)
  • Literal (not symbolic)
  • Problems with abstractions
  • Difficulty applying theory in new setting
  • Oral (not literate)
  • Tech intense
  • Semantically flexible (txt msg 4 u)
  • High stimulation/ multisensory
  • Reduced responsibility/ self efficacy
  • High value of own opinion
  • Skeptical- no intellectual authorities
  • Develop ability to think critically, evaluate
    information/ authorities.

10
Responsibility issues
  • Reduced self-efficacy
  • Externally oriented- limited introspection
  • Suggests projection of responsibility
  • Limited familiarity with consequence
  • Pandemic cheating
  • Civility/ citizenship issues
  • Not especially resilient
  • Self-interested Army of one
  • High self-esteem/ self-importance
  • Personally excellent
  • Good enough already
  • Little perceived need for development or
    change.

11
Po-mo student
  • Few developmental goals (get not become)
  • Citizenship, character, civic behavior/
    involvement issues
  • Little academic risk taking
  • Little perceived need for learning/ change
  • Limited concept of consequence
  • Tired of school (none left behind)
  • Unprepared (standardized minds).

12
Po-mo student
  • Record levels of academic
    disengagement
  • Record lows for time spent studying
  • Record high school grade inflation
  • Optimistic about chances for success
  • Unaware of workplace expectations
  • Unrealistic expectations about their skills and
    college expectations.

13
Workplace issues
  • a pandemic of workplace unreadiness as todays
    graduates are unable to think long term, handle
    details or delay gratification Levine 2005
  • Most colleges are seriously out of step with the
    real world in getting students ready to become
    workers in the postcollege world. TIME Jan. 24
    05
  • Improve workplace readiness
  • Hard skills/ soft skills
  • Critical thinking/ work ethic

14
Po-mo student
  • Few authorities (your opinion)
  • High value on personal experience
  • Must practice skills and construct personal
    meaning
  • Respond to active methods.

15
Po-mo student
  • Do not like, respond to, or show significant
    benefits from traditional instructional methods

16
State of College Teaching
  • Loosely organized, unfocused curriculum with
    undefined outcomes
  • Classes emphasize passive listening
  • Lectures transmit low-level information
  • Assessments demand only recall of memorized
    material or low-level comprehension.

    (Gardiner 1998)

17
State of College Outcomes
  • Good reading comprehension but poor analysis or
    application
  • Poor problem solving and reasoning skills
  • Poor appreciation of scientific method
  • Poor historical memory, reasoning
  • Poor language skills at work
  • Poor social skills at work.

18
  • An emphasis on passive, content learning reduces
    students abilities to think critically.

19
College Learning
  • Locking students into surface learning
    performance goals
  • Input and output are knowledge based
  • Learn content/process based on test
  • Memorization and point acquisition
  • Informations utility is grade based
  • Take it in and spit it back out
  • Dont recall because they never understood
  • Gets worse over time.

20
Learning outcomes
  • Students are not learning even basic general
    knowledge, they are not developing higher-level
    cognitive skills, and they are not retaining
    their knowledge.
  • In fact there is little evidence of a significant
    difference between students who take courses and
    student who do not.
  • Gardiner

21
John Tagg Why Learn?
  • Most college courses represent a systematic
    failure to create a learning environment that
    promotes meaningful, lasting student development.
  • John Tagg 2004
  • Despite the fact that faculty and staff
    overwhelming care about students and desire them
    to do well.
  • Mark Taylor 2006

22
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23
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24
The question(s)
  • How can we better engage students in their
    learning?
  • How can we facilitate deep,lasting learning?
  • How can we help them prepare for adult roles in
    work and society?

25
  • Teaching to and across styles has significant
    impacts on knowledge acquisition
  • Pascarella and Terenzini, p. 623
  • 2005

26
Learning domains
  • Cognitive
  • Intellectual understanding, ability to apply,
    etc.
  • Psychomotor
  • Physical motor skills
  • Affective
  • Feelings, attitudes, interests, values
  • Necessary for students to care
  • If they dont care, they wont care.

27
Learning styles
  • Visual- seeing
  • Auditory- hearing
  • Kinesthetic- doing/ telling.
  • Reflective
  • Active

28
Learning- What it is?
  • Your teaching is a function of your ideas about
    learning
  • What are you evaluating?
  • Recall content?
  • (adding leaves to plant)
  • Ability to perform? (developing conditions for
    student change)
  • Brain activity?
  • Changes in world view
  • Constructivism

29
Learning- What it is?
  • Your teaching is a function of your ideas about
    learning
  • What are you evaluating?
  • Recall content?
  • Ability to perform/ demonstration of skills?
  • Brain activity?
  • Changes in world view?
  • Becoming a

30
Instruction
  • How do people teach and why?
  • Like they were taught?
  • Based on data on best practices?
  • 70 admit to lecture as primary instructional
    method
  • 83 of students report that courses rely on
    lecture
  • Lectures that transmit facts.

31
  • Instructional methods should be based on best
    practices, not tradition.

32
End the traditional pedagogy
  • The Teaching Model
  • Lecture based, information based
  • Limited learning options
  • Passive students
  • Norm referenced,
    low level assessments
  • Assignments of questionable value in process or
    content.

33
A pedagogy of
  • Engagement
  • Activity
  • Options
  • 1. Information
  • 2. Application
  • 3. Meaning.

34
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35
Postmodern Pedagogy
  • Accepts the realities of our students, their
    educational needs and how people learn
  • Focuses on student change (not instructor
    activity)
  • Learning must be personally constructed (not
    just transferred)
  • Focuses on student engagement and activity
  • Recognizes the value of class time and instructor
    activity
  • Recognizes the availability of information
  • Students need multiple learning options
  • Success should be available to all students
  • Recognizes students need for 1.
    knowledge/information, 2. skills/
    application, and 3. value/ meaning
  • Recognizes the need for faculty development.

36
Postmodern pedagogy
  • Not dumbing down
  • -higher ordered thinking
  • Not pandering
  • -recognizes realities of learning
  • Not reducing content
  • -relates content to application
  • Not devaluing instructor
  • -expert in content and process.

37
Learning
  • From teaching to learning
  • Learning is the constant, teaching is the
    variable
  • Focus on student change
  • Increase activity in learners
  • Discover for themselves.

38
Shifts
Old Teaching Instructor behavior
New Learning Students heads
Learning constant Teaching variable
Teaching constant Learning variable
Learning is constructed
Information everywhere Focus on student
activity
Knowledge is transferred One direction-
received Spray and stick
The strong survive Competitive
Success for all Cooperative
Modern Truth/ meaning
Postmodern Created reality
39
  • Learning results from student construction, not
    teacher activity.

40
Learning models
Commodity Model
Developmental model
Personal, transformational
Purchased, accumulated
Passive, entertaining
Engaging, demanding
Information based Surface learning
Application/ meaning based Deep learning
Delivered to student
Created with student
Grade is the outcome
Complex outcomes Knowledge?
Application skills? Meaning/ value?
41
Learning what? Changing how?
  • Knowledge/ Information
  • -transmitted/ found
  • -knowing cognitive
  • Application/ Skills/ Utility
  • -Must relate to students experience in world
  • -Must be practiced, rehearsed, anticipated
  • -Doing behavior/ social
  • Value/ Meaning/ Caring
  • -Why care? What is the value of the
    application?
  • -Required to maintain content, apply or use
    skill
  • -Can only be personally created
  • -Being affective

42
Learning what? Changing how?
  • Knowledge/ Information
  • -What is critical for them to know?
  • -How can we make it available?
  • -How can we get them to bring it to class?
  • Application/ Skills/ Utility
  • -What is the use to them?
  • -Past, present, future
  • -Meaningful applications relate to and can be
    used for goal setting
  • Value/ Meaning/ Caring
  • -Value/ benefit of use
  • -Opportunities to articulate value to others.

43
Knowledge/ information
  • What do they already know?
  • What is critical for them to know, and why?
  • What are the skills/ processes to which this
    information will be applied?
  • Where is this available?
  • Content based courses do not develop critical
    thinking, lasting change, or significant ability
    to deal with new information
  • What are requisite skills for them to be able to
    identify, manage, process information?
  • Note taking, reading for comprehension, benefit
    from lecture
  • How much information is needed to develop skills
    and meaning.

44
Class time
  • Too much time in most classes is spent on the
    transmission of information
  • Most class information can be accessed from other
    sources at other times
  • If they have real need for information in class,
    they will bring it
  • Spend class time working on application and
    meaning.

45
  • If students have a real need for information in
    class they will bring it.
  • How can we get them to bring it?

46
  • How can we increase content learning options?

47
Increasing content learning options
  • Listen to lecture podcast/ watch lecture AV
  • Read text silently/ aloud to others
  • Listen to tape of text
  • On-line tutorials/ lessons on disc
  • Access web resources
  • Study group/ tutor group
  • Chat/ on line message board
  • Dyads, triads, in-class activities
  • Project group
  • Question instructor in class, office or on-line
  • Chanting concepts in drumming circle.

48
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49
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50
Application/ Skills/ Utility
  • What can I do with this information?
  • What are my possible uses of this information?
  • How can this information be applied to my
    world?
  • Information without a use is.
  • useless and will be discarded
  • What skills will this help me with or what skills
    do I need to do this?
  • Must be non-circular
  • Critical thinking/ abstract problem solving in
    ambiguous situations with limited information.

51
Application learning options
  • Modeling/ illustrations
  • Activity, Practice, Ownership
  • What is your previous experience with this
    information?
  • What have others done with it?
  • What could you do with it?
  • Reading for meaning/ sharing
  • Writing reflections (in class/ out of class)
  • Peer teaching
  • Managed small group problem solving
  • Case studies
  • Simulations/ experiments
  • central theme, same or different, brainstorming,
    examples in world
  • Jig-saw, expert groups.

52
  • Why are you taking this class?
  • What do you hope to get out of this class?

53
Class goals
  • What are your goals for students?
  • What are students goals?
  • Ask them the first day for goals?
  • List/ articulate/ offer/ sell class goals
  • Which most important to you?
  • How does this change over semester?

54
Value/ Meaning/ Caring
  • Human dimension/ valuing
  • Ethical standards
  • Affective social implications
  • Helping students care and invest
  • Builds from personalization of application
  • What can this do for me?
  • Which of my goals will this help me reach?
  • What do I want to get out of this class?
  • What are the ethical standards of my
    profession?
  • What should they be?
  • Your passion is necessary but not sufficient

55
Value learning options
  • Why is this important to me?
  • Meaning is personally constructed
  • Have students articulate their construction to
    others
  • Explain, debate, convince

56
Information
Application
Value
Where to begin?
57
Knowledge Skills Values
Stuff you know What you can do with it? Does it matter?
Facts, data, concepts, theories, formulas Applications, utility Meaning, Beliefs usefulness
Cognitive Social, behavioral (or cognitive) Affective
Transmitted, Found Discovered, practiced Personally created Values/ ethics
58
Knowledge
Ideas into Practice
Ability to evaluate information
Skills
Values
Practice into ethical behavior
Lasting change requires knowledge, skills and
values
Acting in uncertain conditions requires
knowledge, skills and values
59
Elements of Formation
Knowledge
Skills
Values
Habits of the head
Habits of the hands
Habits of the heart
Specific skills
Data/ theory
Ethics/Purpose
Doing
Being told/ discovering
Interaction/ modeling
Ideas into practice
Practice into moral behavior
------- Professional Judgment in Conditions of
Uncertainty -------
60
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61
Questions
  • What is the question your class should answer.
  • What is the question students should care about?

62
  • it is evident that quality of student effort is
    significantly related not only to student growth
    and developmentbut also to student persistence
    (p. 71)
  • Tinto, Vincent. (1993) Leaving College
    Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student
    Attrition.

63
They come to care
Their see how this changes their world
They apply to their experience in the world
Your teaching
What the student knows
64
Learning requires
  • Attention
  • Engagement
  • Investment

65
Responsibility/ expectations
  • exercise

66
Responsibility/ expectations
  • Foundational to help students
  • understand shared responsibilities
  • take ultimate responsibility for own learning
  • understand behavioral expectations
  • understand developmental expectations
  • develop high personal expectations
  • What is the balance?
  • How is it communicated?

67
Learning requires engagement
  • Learning begins with engagement and ends when
    engagement is broken
  • Articulate expectation of
  • Attention/ engagement
  • Participation/ Activity
  • Preparation/ Accountability
  • What do these look like?
  • Live, on-line, asynchronous?

68
Academic Challenge
  • When faculty members expect students to perform
    at high levels and support their efforts to meet
    their high standards, students generally strive
    to rise to the occasion (p. 178).
  • Kuh, George D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J.H.,
    Associates. (2005) Student Success in College,
    Creating Conditions That Matter.

69
Engagement
  • Accountable
  • Bring info to class
  • Attending
  • Active
  • Transparent
  • Activities
  • Audience response systems

70
Behavioral Expectations
  • Normative behaviors context
  • Attendance
  • Preparation
  • Attention
  • Civility
  • Accountability
  • Transparency
  • Risk taking
  • Interdependence.

71
Faculty Expectations
  • Current
  • Prepared
  • Tech appropriate
  • Options
  • Passion

72
Deep learning
  • Better grades
  • Long term retention of information
  • More satisfying learning experience
  • Unstructured problems requiring synthesis of
    various data sources
  • Autonomous, experiential learning in field with
    real world problems
  • Increasing intellectual challenges across
    courses/ degree

73
Teacher behaviors that matter
  • Preparation, organization, clarity
  • Quality, frequent feedback
  • Rapport with students
  • Availability
  • Informal contact
  • Helpfulness
  • Concern for students
  • Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005, page 612

74
Teachers role
  • Identifies external/ criterion goals
  • Helps students own /personalize goals
  • Offers many learning options
  • Facilitates variety of learning methods
  • Acts as resource
  • Assesses against external criteria.

75
  • Tinto, Vincent. (1993) Leaving College
    Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student
    Attrition.
  • Even among those who persist, wide-ranging
    contact with faculty, especially outside the
    class, is associated with heightened intellectual
    and social development (pp. 68-69).

76
Teaching up taxonomies
  • 6. Evaluation deeper value/ meaning
  • Relation to theory Does it matter to me?
  • 5. Synthesis connecting the disconnected

4. Analysis identify constituent parts
3. Application usefulness
2. Comprehension factoids in context
  • 1. Knowledge basic understanding of factoids

77
Teaching up taxonomies
  • 1. Knowledge
  • basic understanding/ factoids
  • 2. Comprehension
  • what it means
  • 3. Application
  • usefulness/ applied to action
  • 4. Analysis
  • break it down
  • 5. Synthesis
  • putting parts together
  • 6. Evaluation
  • value/ meaning Does it matter to me?

78
Lecture
  • Cant be about information transfer
  • Clarifying content
  • Requires specific behavioral expectations for
    students
  • Offer/ illustrate application/ utility
  • Offer/ sell meaning/ value
  • Frequent responses required
  • Frequent imbedded assessments
  • Break with activity.

79
Class discussion
  • Wonderful active learning opportunity
  • if the group is six or smaller
  • Larger groups monopolized by few vocal students
    5 of students- 95 of talk
  • Most questions procedural, content
  • Message boards?
  • Introverts and older students more likely to
    post than speak.

80
Discussion in class
  • Requires engagement
  • Process based questions
  • Limit volunteers
  • Ask good questions
  • Question, pause, response, pause
  • Accountable talk
  • content- respond to subject
  • process- recall, logic/ problem solving.

81
Large classes
  • Consider an audience response system
  • Attendance
  • Bringing content to class
  • Engagement
  • Assess on-going understanding
  • Facilitate activity/ peer sharing
  • Assessments/ evaluations

82
  • Increasing student input into class activities
    and outcomes increases student responsibility and
    ownership.

83
Increasing activity in learning
  • Routine context/ novel content
  • Brain science
  • Improves learning outcomes
  • Increases higher level learning
  • Increases student ownership of material
  • Improves retention/ satisfaction
  • Offers citizenship/ character development
    opportunities.

84
  • the most effective teaching and learning require
    opportunities for active student involvement and
    participation
  • Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005, page 646

85
Increasing activity in learning
  • Brain science
  • Improves learning outcomes
  • Increases higher level learning
  • Increases student ownership of material
  • Improves retention/ satisfaction
  • Offers citizenship/ character development
    opportunities
  • Get them to say it to get them to own it.

86
Increasing activity in learning
  • Developing skills and finding meaning
  • Routine context/ novel content
  • Reading for meaning/ sharing
  • Writing reflections (in/ out)
  • Peer teaching
  • Managed small group problem solving
  • Case studies
  • Simulations/ experiments
  • central theme, same or different, brainstorming,
    examples in world
  • Jig-saw, expert groups.

87
Increasing activity in learning
  • Routine context/ novel content
  • Read- content for meaning
  • Think/ write- theme, application, example, etc.
  • Pair- with partner
  • Share- same or different
  • Square- two pairs, same or different
  • Group- model understanding, consensus building

88
Increasing activity in learning
  • Routine context/ novel content
  • Reflecting / talking about what they are learning
  • Writing about it
  • Finding examples in the world
  • Relating to past experiences
  • Applying to daily lives
  • Deciding if it matters or not
  • Seeing the impact on their future.

89
The brain connection
  • Students develop neural pathways by repeated
    practice
  • It is not what the instructor does, it is is what
    happens inside the students head that matters
  • Requires activity.

90
The meaning connection
  • 1. Start with what student knows
  • Their experience in the world
  • What matters to them/ an important question
  • Goals- learning, career, personal, etc
  • 2. Teach- find information/ utility to them
  • 3. Help student see how their world can be
    different as a result of the utility of
    information

91
  • Activity in learning increases opportunities for
    developing academic and social integration.

92
  • Increasing activity/ disclosure in learning
    increases opportunities for observing and
    developing citizenship and character.

93
Activity and citizenship
  • How does lecture improve citizenship?
  • Activity requires
  • Accountability
  • Class, instructor and self
  • Transparency/ exposure
  • Values are made apparent
  • Process/ content
  • Acting according to expectations.

94
  • Tinto, Vincent. (1993) Leaving College
    Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student
    Attrition.
  • Even among those who persist, wide-ranging
    contact with faculty, especially outside the
    class, is associated with heightened intellectual
    and social development (pp. 68-69).

95
Interactive dyads/ triads
  • Pairs and trios working on some specific learning
    task
  • Might be central part of class dynamic
  • 1. Review- peer teaching of content
  • 2. Comprehension
  • 3. Examples / analysis
  • 4. Application / utility
  • 5. Establishing meaning.

96
Group/ collaborative
  • Jig saw / expert groups
  • Problem, project, case method
  • Long term
  • Meaningful
  • Monitored
  • Worth class time?

97
Projects and Project groups
  • Projects/ activities must relate to identified
    learning outcomes.
  • All projects should have presentation/ sharing
    component
  • Project groups should foster interdependence
  • Project groups should be
  • long term
  • meaningful
  • monitored
  • Early success/ non-fatal reality check

98
  • All projects should have presentation/ sharing
    component.

99
Learning (scoring) rubrics
  • Starts with the end in mind
  • Makes expectations clear
  • Helps students understand what, when and how to
    learn
  • Clearly identifies outcomes for each activity/
    option
  • Processes
  • Specifics of grade assignments
  • Rapid feedback.

100
  • The grading event should not be the first time a
    students work is evaluated.

101
Self and peer review
  • The grading event should not be the first time
    work is evaluated!
  • They come to understand the rubrics by using them
  • No surprises
  • Mastery important?
  • Then they are not done until they have mastery.

102
Grading/ testing
  • You pay the bill you are sent
  • You must teach the test
  • Must relate to known rubrics
  • Self, peer evaluations
  • Testing is part of learning, not the end
  • Mastery
  • Early non-fatal reality testing
  • Short, power writing

103
Imbedded Assessment
  • Non graded activities that evaluate learning
    progress
  • Audience response systems
  • Clickers
  • Attendance quiz
  • Mock tests
  • The finger

104
Evaluation
  • Appraisals and judgments about worth, and/or
    utility of information
  • Internal evidence
  • Logical accuracy, consistency
  • External evidence
  • Works of recognized quality
  • As relates to theory
  • The Holy Grail.

105
Formal Assessment
  • Self and Peer evaluation
  • Less content - more application
  • Less quantity more quality
  • Less scantron more essay
  • Up the taxonomy
  • Bad- matching, listing, define/fill in the blank,
    factiods
  • Less bad- describe, multiple choice?
  • Better- What if?
  • Better or worse?

106
Postmodern pedagogy
  • Not dumbing down
  • -higher ordered thinking
  • Not pandering
  • -recognizes realities of learning
  • Not reducing content
  • -relates content to application
  • Not devaluing instructor
  • -expert in content and process.

107
Obstacles to change
  • Instructor belief in effectiveness
  • Instructor skills
  • Teaching resources
  • Student readiness
  • Administrative support
  • Academic architecture
  • One step at time.

108
Student life
  • Independent goals?
  • Support academic mission?
  • Partners in student change
  • Why?
  • Learning
  • Responsibility
  • Knowledge/ Skills/ Values
  • Engagement
  • Activity
  • Options
  • Student change.

109
A pedagogy of
  • Engagement
  • Activity
  • Options
  • 1. Information
  • 2. Application
  • 3. Meaning.

110
Postmodern Pedagogy
  • Accepts the realities of our students and their
    educational needs
  • Focuses on student change (not instructor
    activity)
  • Learning must be personally constructed (not
    just transferred)
  • Focuses on student engagement and activity
  • Recognizes the value of class time and instructor
    activity
  • Recognizes the availability of information
  • Students need multiple learning options
  • Success should be available to all students
  • Recognizes students need for knowledge/informatio
    n, skills/ application, and value/ meaning
  • Recognizes the need for faculty development.

111
This semester in class
  • Do we all know why we are here (desired
    outcomes)?
  • Do we all agree that these are good goals?
  • Do they know what I want them to do?
  • Are these students engaged?
  • Are these students active?
  • Do I have to be doing this?
  • Could we spend class time on application or
    meaning?
  • How will I know if/when we have reached our goals?

112
Higher education
  • Thinking is an acquired taste
  • Content through application
  • Get active
  • Connect
  • Mastery/ student change
  • Why does it matter?

113
Questions/ Comments? Resources?
  • Dr. Mark Taylor
  • www.taylorprograms.org
  • mltaylor_at_asub.edu
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