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Instructional Technology

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Title: Instructional Technology


1
Instructional Technology
  • Theoretical foundations and my philosophical
    beliefs

2
Psychological Foundations
Below are the major psychological theories that
have shaped the field of Instruction Technology
and influenced my understanding of learning
processes
  • Behaviorism
  • Information Process Theory of Learning
  • Situated Learning Theory
  • Gagnes Theory of Instruction
  • Constructivism

3
Behavioral Learning Theory
Psychological Foundations
Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human
learning that only focuses on observable
behaviors and ignores mental activities
(Funderstanding, 2001, paragraph 1). Behaviors
are reactions to different stimuli. Learning
occurs when behaviors receive positive results
and are repeated. Important scientists in
behaviorism research include
  • Ivan P. Pavlov (classical conditioning),
  • John B. Watson
  • B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning)

4
Information Process Theory
Psychological Foundations
Information processing theory uses the computer
to model human learning. The human mind gets
information (attention), processes the
information (encoding), stores the information
(retention) and gets the information when needed
(retrieval). They believe there are three kinds
of memory sensory registers, short-term memory
and long-term memory. Information goes from
sensory registers to short-term memory which can
only hold 5 to 9 chunks of information.
Information from short-term memory is then
transferred to long-term memory that has
unlimited storage capacity .
5
Implications of CIP for Instruction
Psychological Foundations
Provide organized instruction. Make the structure
and relations of the material evident to
learners, such as through concept maps or other
graphic representations.Link new material with
what is currently known. This provides a sort of
mental "scaffolding" for the new
material.Recognize the limitations of
short-term memory. Use the concept of chunking
don't present 49 separate items, make them 7
groups of 7. Use elaboration and multiple
contexts. Arrange for a variety of practice
opportunities. The goal is to help the learner
generalize the concept, principle, or skill to be
learned so that it can be applied outside of the
original context in which it was taught.Help
learners become "self-regulated." Assist them in
selecting and using appropriate learning
strategies such as summarizing and questioning
(Perry,2003, paragraph 14). 
6
Situated Cognition Theory
Psychological Foundations
  • Situated learning theory proposes that learning
    is a result of an activity done in its proper
    environment and with social interaction within
    the culture. Situated learning theorists believe
    that one learns a subject matter by doing what
    experts in that subject matter do.
  • Principles
  • Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic
    context,
  • i.e., settings and applications that would
    normally involve
  • that knowledge.
  • Learning requires social interaction and
    collaboration

7
Gagnes Theory of Instruction
Psychological Foundations
Gagnes nine step process that defines the
conditions necessary for learning.
  • gaining attention (reception)
  • informing learners of the objective
    (expectancy)
  • stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
  • presenting the stimulus (selective perception )
  • providing learning guidance (semantic encoding )
  • eliciting performance (responding)
  • providing feedback (reinforcement)
  • assessing performance (retrieval)
  • enhancing retention and transfer
    (generalization)

8
Constructivism
Psychological Foundations
Constructivism is the belief that individual
students form knowledge for themselves and dont
rely on what someone else say is true. In
constructivism, the student acts as the creator
of their own meaning. Their current experiences
reinforces and builds on prior experiences if
they are similar and challenges prior experiences
that conflict. For constructivist, there is no
knowledge outside of the learners constructed
knowledge from experience.
9
Learning Environments
There are two major views about the nature of
knowledge and learning. These views have lead to
different instructional methods for teaching and
have created different learning environments.
  • Positivism believe that knowledge exists
    independent of
  • individuals, That there are absolute truths
    that exist in the world.
  • ( Behaviorism and cognitive theories )
  • Relativism believe that knowledge is constructed
    by the
  • learner truth is contextual
  • ( Constructivism )

10
Learning Environments
Direct Instruction
  • Directed Instruction is a systematic method for
    presenting material in small steps, pausing to
    check for student understanding and drawing
    active and successful participation from all
    students. (Rosenshine, 1986, p. 60) This model is
    based on behaviorist theory.
  • Important teaching functions
  • daily review
  • presenting new material
  • guided practice
  • corrections and feedback
  • independent practice
  • weekly and monthly reviews.

11
Learning Environments
The Distributed Network Learning Framework
Knowledge Spaces conceptual model
In a network learning environment, information
flows through the network based on decisions made
by learner. Information and knowledge flow to
where learner needs it. Information from the
network is stored locally (memory) if the learner
expects it to be of value. Over time learner
would optimize the organization of locally stored
information. EXAMPLE Learner is a pizza lover.
They initially look up pizza phone number via
computer. They order pizza and like it, so after
several more orders the pizza phone number moves
from computer to note pasted on computer for
easier access. The pizza phone number will then
move to memory which is the fastest access to the
phone number thus knowledge has been transferred
from network to learner.
12
Learning Environments
Anchored Instruction
  • The goal of anchored instruction is to create
    interesting, realistic contexts that encouraged
    the active construct ion of knowledge by
    learners. Anchors were usually stories rather
    than lectures and were designed to be explored by
    students and teachers. The use of interactive
    videodisc technology makes it possible for
    students to easily explore the content.
  • Principles
  • Learning and teaching activities should be
    designed around a "anchor"
  • which should be some sort of case-study or
    problem situation.
  • Curriculum materials should allow exploration by
    the learner (e.g.,
  • interactive videodisc programs).

13
Learning Environments
Engagement Theory
  • Engagement theory is the idea that students must
    be meaningfully engaged in learning activities
    through interaction with others and worthwhile
    tasks. Engagement theory is intended to be used
    for technology-based learning and teaching
    because technology offers the most engagement
    methods.
  • Engagement theory shares similarities with
    constructivism, situated learning theory and
    androgogy.
  • Similarities with other theories
  • Constructivism-emphasis on meaningful learning
  • Situated Learning theory- emphasis on
    collaboration among peers and a
  • community of learners
  • Androgogy- focus on experience and self-directed
    learning

14
Learning Motivation Theories
The field of Instructional design is assuming
more responsibilities in the larger scope of
human performance. From this perspective,
instructional designers have to understand and
identify all factors that influence human
performance and design to improve performance.
Within this broader scope, understanding
motivation is important ( Reiser, Dempsey, 2002,
p.86 ). Motivation refers to a persons desire
to pursue a goal or perform a task, which is
manifested by choice of goals and effort
(persistence plus vigor) in pursuing the goal(
Reiser, Dempsey, 2002, p.86 ).
15
Learning Motivation Theories
Motivational needs Theory
  • David C. McClellan proposed that we all have
    three fundamental needs that exist in different
    balances. These needs affect how we are motivated
    and how we attempt to motivate others.
    McClellands theory states that these needs could
    be changed through training
  • Fundamental needs
  • Need for achievement- Seeks achievement,
    attainment of goals and
  • advancement. Strong need for feedback, sense
    of accomplishment and
  • progress
  • Need for affiliation- Need for friendships,
    interaction and to be liked.
  • Need for power- Authority motivated needs to
    influence and make an impact.
  • Strong need to lead and to increase personal
    status and prestige.

16
Learning Motivation Theories
Learned Helplessness Theory
  • A theory by Martin E. P. Seligman based on
    cognitive psychology, it states that what one
    thinks determines their behavior. Seligman
    explains that depression is a result of
    pessimistic thinking. Depressed people thought in
    more pessimistic ways than non-depressed people.
    Explanatory style was the termed coined to
    describe the different thinking styles.
  • Seligman found that these explanations could be
    rated along three dimensions
  • personalization internal vs. external
  • pervasiveness specific vs. universal
  • permanence temporary vs. permanent.
  • He found that the most pessimistic explanatory
    style is correlated with the most depression. He
    said we often learn explanatory styles from our
    parents.

17
Learning Motivation Theories
Attribution Theory
  • Attribution theory is about how people explain
    things. We have only two possible explanations
    for why things happen.
  • Explanations
  • Internal Attribution an internal attribution
    assigns causality to factors within
  • the person. The person is claimed to be
    directly responsible for the event
  • External Attribution assigns causality to an
    outside agent or force. The
  • outside agent is claimed to have motivated
    the event.
  • Attribution theory shows us that people can
    create new attitudes or beliefs depending upon
    the explanation they make. If they make internal
    attribution they tend to change their attitude
    and beliefs about themselves. With External
    attributes they are not taking responsibility so
    they are unlikely to change.

18
Learning Motivation Theories
ARCS Model
  • John Kellers ARCS Model for motivation is a
    systematic process to include motivational
    factors in the design process of instructional
    materials. There are four main motivation
    categories along with sub categories.
  • Motivation Categories
  • Attention
  • Perceptual Arousal
  • Inquiry Arousal
  • Variability
  • Relevance
  • Goal Orientation
  • Motive matching
  • Familiarity
  • Confidence
  • Learning requirements
  • Success Opportunities
  • Personal control
  • Satisfaction
  • Intrinsic Reinforcement
  • Extrinsic Rewards
  • Equity

19
My Philosophical Beliefs
My philosophical beliefs about learning and
learning environments is based in between
positivism and relativism epistemology. My
philosophical beliefs are a reflection of my
career interest in adult education. I subscribe
to Gagnes theory of instruction and Knowles
principles of androgogy. I am a strong believer
that adult education should be learner centered
with teachers acting as facilitators. I believe
that assignments and course materials should be
based on real world situation, the career path of
the learner.
20
My Philosophical Beliefs
Within the positivism epistemology, I favor the
cognitive theories more than behaviorism. I
believe that learning has an internal process
component, our mind, which processes a stimuli
and puts out an appropriate behavioral response.
Where I defer from relativism is my belief that
knowledge exists independent of the learner. I
believe there is an absolute truth which we are
constantly seeking with our observations,
theories and experiments. I subscribe to
relativisms learner-centered approach, and
relevant nature of learning content. I like
situated cognition theory, engagement theory and
distributed network learning framework. I believe
that technology can be a way of learning as well
as a tool for learning.
21
References
  • Droar, D. (2004). Motivational Needs. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004 from http//www.arrod.co.uk/archi
    ve/article_motivational_needs.php
  • Funderstanding. (2001). Behaviorism. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004, from http//www.funderstanding.c
    om/behaviorism.cfm
  • Funderstanding. (2001). Constructivism. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004, from http//www.funderstanding.c
    om/constructivism.cfm
  • Huitt, W. (2000). The Information Processing
    Approach. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from
    http//hsc.csu.edu.au/pro_dev/teaching_online/how_
    we_learn/
  • information.html
  • Kruse, K. (2002). The Magic of Learner
    Motivation The ARCS Model. Retrieved February 7,
    2004 from http//www.e-learningguru.com/
  • articles/art3_5.htm
  • Open Learning Technology Corporation Limited.
    (1996). Situated Learning. Retrieved February 7,
    2004 from http//www.educationau.edu.au/
  • archives/cp/04k.htm

22
References
  • Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven,
    plus or minus two Some limits on our capacity
    for processing information. Retrieved February 7,
    2004, from. http//www.well.com/user/smalin/miller
    .html
  • Perry, J.D. (2003). Cognitive approaches I -
    Basic information processing model. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004, from http//education.indiana.ed
    u/7Ep540/
  • webcourse/readings
  • SBB. (1996). ATTRIBUTION THEORY. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004 from http//www.as.wvu.edu/sbb/
    comm221/chapters/attrib.htm
  • Yen, D.H. (1998). Learned Helplessness. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004 from http//www.noogenesis.com/ma
    lama/discouragement/helplessness.html
  • Bransford, J.D. CTGV. (1993). Anchored
    Instruction. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from
    http//tip.psychology.org/anchor.html
  • Carr, A.M., Carr, C.S. (2000). The Nine Events
    of Instruction. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from
    http//ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/9events.htm

23
References
  • Jacobson, M.J., Levin, J.A. ( 1993). Network
    Learning Environments and Hypertext Constructing
    Personal and Shared Knowledge Spaces. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004 from http//www.ed.uiuc.edu/TTA/P
    apers/JL-Tel-Ed93.html
  • Kearsley, G., Shneiderman, B. (1999).
    Engagement Theory
  • A framework for technology-based teaching and
    learning. Retrieved February 7, 2004 from
    http//home.sprynet.com/gkearsley/engage.htm
  • Reiser, R.A., Dempsey, J.V. (2002). Trends and
    Issues In Instructional Design And Technology.
    Upper Saddle River, NJ Merrill Prentice Hall
  • Bustamante, L., Howe-Tennant, D., Ramo, C.
    (1996). The Behavioral Approach. Retrieved
    February 7, 2004, from http//facultyweb.cortland.
    edu/ANDERSMD/BEH/BEHAVIOR.HTML
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