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The Enlightenment

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The Enlightenment The Age of Reason DO NOW What do you hope the future will be like for your generation? The Enlightenment 1500s / 1600s - Scientific Revolution paves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Enlightenment


1
The Enlightenment
  • The Age of Reason

2
DO NOW
  • What do you hope the future will be like for your
    generation?

3
The Enlightenment
  • 1500s / 1600s - Scientific Revolution paves way
    for use of scientific method and reason to obtain
    truth

4
The Enlightenment
  • Starting in 1690s new group of writers and
    scholars continues to view reason as a way to
    obtain truth
  • Through reason, they believed they could solve
    all human problems
  • This time known as the Enlightenment, or Age of
    Reason

5
The Enlightenment
  • Secular, scientific attitudes
  • Criticize EVERY THING (ex the absolutism of
    Louis XIV, or traditional role of women in society

6
The Enlightenment
  • Writers publish their ideas in books, magazines,
    pamphlets to help spread their ideas

7
Salons
  • 1700s Paris becomes the center of activity for
    these thinkers
  • Wealthy Parisians, mostly women, begin hosting
    social gatherings called salons
  • Philosophers, artists, scientists, writers would
    attend and discuss their ideas

8
Salon Activity
  • On a scrap piece of paper
  • Pick TWO topics from the following list that you
    would be interested in discussing and learning
    about (1 being your first pick)
  • Climate change
  • Education
  • Health Care
  • Immigration
  • Labor wages, work load, etc.
  • LGBT issues
  • Privacy / Surveillance
  • Racism

9
Imagine
  • what life would be like in a state of nature.
  • What might happen if the teacher didnt have the
    right to tell anyone to do?

10
State of Nature
  • a situation where there is no government or laws

11
Work with a neighbor
  • Discuss and write answers to the following
    questions
  • What might be the advantages and disadvantages of
    living in a state of nature?
  • What might life be like for everyone?

12
Thomas Hobbes
  • was a mathematician, influenced by Galileos
    scientific principles
  • tries to turn politics into a science

13
Wait a second
  • WHAT IS POLITICS?
  • Influencing other people
  • on a community level
  • OR on an individual level

14
Thomas Hobbes
  • Lives through bloody English Civil War
  • Works as tutor for royal family, flees with
    Charles II to France after execution
  • Sympathizes with Royalists
  • Believes England needs a strong monarch in charge

Charles II as Prince of Wales (1642)
15
Thomas Hobbes
  • Publishes Leviathan (1651)
  • Humans competitive by nature
  • Fear is the most powerful motivation for action
  • Humans state of nature is war

16
Thomas Hobbes
  • In the state of nature, peoples lives are
  • nasty, brutish, and short
  • People enter into a contract give up some
    freedom to have a strong leader who provides
    safety and order

17
Thomas Hobbes Leviathan
  • Actively read!

18
Think and write
  • Think of a right you believe all people should
    have.
  • For example, you probably agree that everyone in
    the United States has the right to be protected
    from robbers and burglars. The belief that
    everyone should have this protection is held by
    most Americans.
  • In your notes, explain how you think rights like
    the one you have identified can be protected.

19
Enlightenment Vocabulary
  • state of nature (already done)
  • philosopher - someone who thinks for a living,
    tries to solve human problems
  • government - system in which a state is managed

20
John Locke
  • Actively read.
  • As you do so, pay close attention to these terms
  • social contract
  • consent
  • rights
  • revolution

21
John Locke - Reading Questions
  • What form of government did Locke advocate?
  • What is a social contract?
  • What about his life may have led to this
    perspective?
  • What might Hobbes and Locke agree on? What might
    they disagree about?
  • What did Locke believe about the purpose of
    government? What could happen to governments who
    fail to do this?
  • What did Locke believe about all people? How
    might this be linked to the idea of rights?

22
Wrap Up Discussion
  • What rights do you think people should have?

23
Do Now
  • Review these terms with a neighbor
  • Absolutism
  • Constitutionalism
  • Social contract
  • Consent
  • Rights

24
philosophes
  • Enlightenment thinkers in France (1700s)
  • See reason not as a thing, but as something you
    do.
  • A verb.
  • Can only be understood through agency!

25
philosophes
  • Tackle a set of social problems
  • How to make the economy prosper / balance trade
  • Religious intolerance
  • Redefine the power of the king (more responsible
    to the people)
  • Reform legal / penal system (more humane)
  • Personal / family life (more happy, natural
    marriages)

26
Montesquieu
  • travels to England, inspired by Locke
  • unsympathetic to revolution
  • approves of constitutional monarchy
  • wants to check the power of kings and balance
    the executive
  • establishes the idea of
  • 3 branches of government

27
Montesquieu
  • Publishes The Persian Letters (1721), which
    begins the French Enlightenment
  • Publishes The Spirit of the Laws (1748) -
    describes three kinds of government republic,
    monarchy, despotism

28
Montesquieu
  • Actively read this text on Montesquieu.

29
Exit Ticket
  1. Name three problems that philosophes sought to
    solve
  2. Who did Montesquieu believe should have power?
  3. What idea is Montesquieu most famous for?

30
Do you believe
  • that we live in the best of all possible
    worlds? Why or why not?

31
Voltaire
  • believes the nobles are corrupt, and that the
    common people are naturally superstitious and
    dumb
  • royal thesis - believes that society needs to
    be fixed, but only a good king is able to do this
  • democracy not a great idea

32
Voltaire
  • Always attacking the Catholic Church, sees it as
    corrupt
  • Is a deist - believes in a supreme being, but
    does not need organized religion to tell him how
    - many Enlightenment philosophers feel this way

33
Voltaire
  • Among the first to talk about human rights
  • Believed in tolerance of other religions and
    ethnicities
  • Horrified by slave trade
  • Spoke out for the freedom of speech and freedom
    of the press
  • I do not agree with what you have to say, but
    Ill defend to the death your right to say it.

34
Voltaire
  • Satire - a type of literature that makes fun of
    certain aspects of society. It is meant to be
    funny, but also offer real criticism about
    problems in the world.
  • Candide (1751) - Voltaires book about a young
    man who believes in his professors optimism -
    that the world we are living in is the best it
    could be - until he travels and experiences
    hardship

35
Candide explained
  • watch this video and answer questions on
    worksheet

36
Do Now
  • What is democracy?
  • Is it possible for all people to have their say
    represented?

37
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • Voltaires personal enemy
  • Harshly critical of all aspects of French society
    - sees everything as corrupt

38
Rousseau
  • Believes that people are naturally good and that
    modern society corrupts people
  • Man is born free but everywhere he is in chains.

39
Rousseau
  • Locke government exists to protect life,
    liberty, and property. Otherwise leave me
    alone!
  • Rousseau government and society should bring
    people together in a community. You have to
    participate.
  • The Social Contract (1762) - argues for a more
    democratic form of government. Government should
    work for the benefit of the common good, not a
    wealthy few people

40
Democracy
  • Form of government where citizens participate
    equally
  • Could be done directly through voting on laws, or
    by electing representatives
  • All citizens are the sovereign power, and can
    choose or get rid of their laws and
    representatives

41
Rousseau
  • Actively read the text on Rousseau
  • Write vocabulary terms in your notes
  • General will
  • Respond to questions on the bottom
  • Share responses with a neighbor, then class

42
Exit Ticket
  • What are the dangers of majority rule?
  • Name one way that minority rights can be
    represented.

43
Do Now
  • Politicians would do a better job if they would
    listen more to the advice of philosophers.
  • Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

44
Enlightened Absolutism
  • Absolutism
  • The king is free from the laws / above the laws /
    can do what he wants
  • Enlightened Absolutism
  • The ruler can still do what he wants, but
    believes in the values of the Enlightenment
  • Rulers in Prussia, Russia, and Austria were
    influenced heavily by the Enlightenment

45
Europe in 1789
So far, where do we know the Enlightenment is
taking place? What kind of governments exist in
Europe at this time? Where? What impact do you
think the Enlightenment will have on these places?
46
Prussia Austria
  • AUSTRIA Habsburg emperor of Holy Roman Empire
    seated in Vienna (capital of Austria)
  • PRUSSIA prince of Brandenburg becomes king
    (1701)

47
Prussia Frederick the Great (r. 1740-86)
  • Maintains Prussia as military power
  • Makes Berlin center of culture, invites Voltaire
    and others to visit
  • Religious toleration
  • (new in Europe!)
  • Abolished torture
  • Reduced censorship

48
Austria Joseph II (r. 1780-90)
  • Son of Maria Teresa
  • Abolishes torture and death penalty
  • Provides free food and medicine for poor citizens
  • Religious tolerance for Protestants and Jews (he
    is Catholic)
  • Abolished serfdom (peasants need to be paid for
    their work)

Amadeus (1984)
49
Russia Catherine the Great (r. 1762-96)
  • Wrote letters to Voltaire, Diderot
  • Drafted a Russian constitution, never adopted
  • Tried to free the serfs (peasant slaves), but
    could not
  • Made Russian state more organized
  • Enhanced Russian education

50
Russia Catherine the Great
  • Actively read this text on Catherine the Great
  • As you read, gather and check your clues with a
    neighbor
  • Read carefully for evidence of Enlightenment
    philosphers ideas in her actions (Hobbes? Locke?
    Voltaire? Rousseau?)
  • Using the clues that you collected, write a one
    paragraph summary of the text

51
Wrap up
  • Which Enlightenment ideas did Catherine the Great
    embrace?
  • Who do you think she got these ideas from?
  • Would you like to live with this form of
    government? Why or why not?

52
Do Now
  • What is an economy?

53
Economy
  • Production, distribution, trade, and consumption
    of goods or services in a given place

54
Mercantilism
  • For years, European governments intervened in the
    economy as much as possible to increase their
    countrys wealth
  • Ex New World colonial trade

55
Adam Smith
  • Scottish Enlightenment thinker

56
Adam Smith
  • Smiths question Why are some places wealthy
    and others are not?
  • Smiths answer not because of natural resources,
    not because of racial superiority
  • Smiths answer innovations in particular
    societies (ex division of labor)

57
Adam Smith
  • Criticized mercantilism - believed that
    governments were interfering in the market too
    much
  • Believed that an invisible hand could set the
    prices as consumers and producers exchanged in an
    economy without government interference

58
Todays Economy Capitalism
  • Why are some things cheap and other things
    expensive?
  • How are the prices of things determined?

59
Adam Smith
  • VIDEO
  • 60 Second Adventures in Economics

60
Adam Smith
  • Actively read this summary on his famous book The
    Wealth of Nations

61
Do Now
  • Thus far, we have been primarily discussing male
    thinkers in the Enlightenment.
  • How do you believe women were regarded in this
    society? What type of status do you think they
    had?

62
Women The Enlightenment
  • While many Enlightenment thinkers questioned
    traditional beliefs, many held traditional views
    on women
  • Women seen primarily as wives and mothers -
    education should only prepare them for these roles

63
Women the Enlightenment
  • Actively read this text aloud as a class
  • Briefly read through timeline on reverse page

64
Women the Enlightenment
  • Break into groups of 2 or 3 to analyze these
  • primary source documents
  • Rousseau, Emile or, On Education (1762)
  • Sophia, Women Not Inferior to Man (1739)
  • Actively read.
  • Then, answer questions on reverse side of
    reading.
  • Be ready to share with class.

65
Women the Enlightenment
  • Which of these primary source documents would be
    most useful to a historian trying to understand
    the role of women in the European Enlightenment?

66
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Rejected the view of women serving only domestic
    needs
  • Demanded equal rights for women, including
    education
  • A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
  • Brief video

67
Exit Ticket
  • In the long run, the movement for equality
    between men and women would not have been
    possible without the Enlightenment.
  • Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

68
Do Now
  • Take out your graphic organizer from yesterday
    and review with a neighbor.
  • Use the information from this to help you answer
    the Background Essay Questions in the DBQ
    packet.

69
Understanding the Question
  • The Enlightenment Philosophers
  • What Was Their Main Idea?
  • What is the analytical question asked by this
    Mini-Q?
  • What terms in the question need to be defined?
  • Rewrite the question in your own words.

70
Pre-Bucketing
  • Using your notes in the graphic organizer, and
    clues in the question, suggest possible labels
    for the buckets.

71
Documents
  • Begin actively reading the documents and
    responding to the reading questions.

72
Document A
73
Document B
74
Document C
75
Document D
76
Use this time
  • To prepare for your discussion at the salon this
    week

77
Bucketing
  • Under each bucket, write a main idea (these will
    be your body paragraphs - do you want to revise
    any of the old buckets with this new
    information?)
  • In each bucket, write the letters of documents
    (these will be your supporting evidence)

78
Thesis Road Map
  • On the leg, write your thesis
  • On the toes, write your main ideas (get these
    from your bucket labels - this will be part of
    your sneak preview)

79
DBQ The Essay
  • Use your
  • Buckets and/or outline
  • Notes in DBQ packets
  • Start writing!

80
Welcome to Salon du Monde !
  • Get your presentation ready
  • as you settle into class.

81
Do tell us
  • What is your topic?
  • What have you learned about it?

82
Mingle with your fellow salonnieres
  • Locate students who may be able to answer your
    question
  • Complete your worksheet

83
Debrief
  • Write a 1 paragraph reflection in the form of one
    of the following
  • I used to think but now I think because
  • I didnt know but now I think
  • Im still unsure of because To learn more about
    this I should
  • I find it interesting that because I could
    learn more about this by
  • I would like to learn more about because I will
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