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Eliza Haywood


ELIZA HAYWOOD 1693? - 1756 Summary of Fantomina How was she able to trick one that was so intimately acquainted with her person?? she was so admirably ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Eliza Haywood

1693? - 1756
-Born Elizabeth Fowler -Was likely married
between 1714-1719 -Had two illegitimate children
-Was linked romantically to Richard Savage and
William Hatchett
Why don't we know more about her life?
This is possibly the result of a request on her
death bed to a particular Person, who was well
acquainted with all the Particulars of it, not to
communicate to any one the least Circumstance
relating to her (Ballaster, Seductive Forms 159)?
  • We do know that Haywood produced over 40 works of
    fiction, four translations, a biography, multiple
    plays, a history of the stage, seven periodicals,
    numerous poems and pamphlets and two collected
    editions of her works.
  • (Fowler, A Woman Writing Among Men, 1.)?

Alexander Pope wrote about
Haywood in his poem
The Dunciad See in the circle next, Eliza
plac'd Two babes of love close clinging to her
waste Fair as before her works she stands
confess'd, In flow'rs and pearls by bounteous
Kirkall dress'd. The Goddess then "Who best can
send on high The salient
spout, far-streaming to the sky
His be yon Juno of majestic size,
With cow like udders, and with ox-like
eyes. Pope takes the focus off of her writing
and into her personal life by proclaiming her two
children to be illegitimate.
Richard Savage also wrote about Haywood in
The Authors of the Town 1725 A Cast off
Dame, who of intrigues can judge, Writes Scandal
in Romance --- A Printer's Drudge! Flush'd with
Success, for Stage-Renown she pants, And melts,
and swells, and pens luxurious Rants.
Women In The 18th Century
  • Eighteenth-Century Women were living in a time of
    great female suppression that demanded limited,
    frivolous education for females and discouraged
    female sexuality.
  • Daniel Defoes novel Moll Flanders accurately
    portrays womens education as learning
    accomplishments such as music, reading, writing,
    French, and dancing (Defoe 54)

Women of the 18th Century
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Recognized as one of the first feminists,
  • Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, which
    spoke against this frivolous education
  • that the instruction which women have hitherto
    received has only tended, with the constitution
    of civil society, to render them insignificant
    objects of desiremere propagators of fools!if
    it can be proved that in aiming to accomplish
    them, without cultivating their understandings,
    they are taken out of their spheres of duties,
    and made ridiculous and useless when the
    short-lived bloom of beauty is over
    (Wollstonecraft 173)?

  • Wollstonecraft went against top thinkers of her
    day like Rousseau, whom Wollstonecraft stated he
    believed that a woman should never for a moment,
    feel herself independent, that she should be
    governed by fear to exercise her natural cunning,
    and made a coquetish slave in order to render her
    a more alluring object of desire, a sweeter
    companion to man (Wollstonecraft 179).

18th Century Women and the Sexual Double Standard
  • Eighteenth-Century women were expected to be
    virtuous or sexually chaste, although the men of
    this time period were not held to this
  • the conduct expected of women as virgins,
    wives, and widows rested on the assumption that
    sexual desire was proper to the male and
    unbecoming to the female (Brophy 27).

  • While a wife must be above reproach, she must
    tolerate, even expect, a much lower order of
    conduct from her husband, both in sexual
    promiscuity and in other masculine prerogatives
    such as drunkenness (Brophy 11).
  • If, within a marriage, a woman realized that her
    husband was cheating on her, during this time
    period a woman was to treat her husband with
    patience and gentleness, but if this same
    situation was reversed, death was a fit
    punishment for the woman (Brophy 11).
  • It was during this period of female suppression
    that Eliza Haywood wrote Fantomina

Summary of Fantomina
  • A tale of an unnamed young gentlewomans
    seduction of the gentleman Beauplaisir
  • 4 seductive personas
  • Fantomina Prostitute
  • Celia Chamber Maid
  • Widow Bloomer Woman In Mourning
  • The Fair Incognita never allows him to see her
  • Her deceptions catch up with her She gets
    pregnant, her mother discovers her affairs, and
    she is sent to a convent.

How was she able to trick one that was so
intimately acquainted with her person??
  • she was so admirably skilld in the Art of
    feigning, that she had the Power of putting on
    almost what Face she pleasd, and knew so exactly
    how to form her Behaviour to the Character she
    represented, that all the Comedians at both
    Playhouses are infinitely short of her
    performances (Demaria 722).
  • In short She was a very good actress!

Haywoods structure in Fantomina
  • Robert Scholes explains the common structure of
    the novel as the following the sophisticated
    forms of fiction, as in the sophisticated
    practice of sex, much of the art consists of
    delaying climax within the framework of desire in
    order to prolong the pleasurable act itself.
  • Haywood contrasts this male model of fiction,
    with a fiction based upon the feminised
    structure of multiple climaxes. (Potter, 175)?

  • A representation of Societal injustices
  • - women betrayed into prostitution by
    manipulative men
  • - servant girls seduced and ruined by the men
    they work for
  • - wronged widows, left for destitution

Anti-Feminist or Feminist
  • Many critics have argued that the punishment of
    Fantomina at the end of Haywoods novella has
    conformed this book to the Eighteenth-Century
    gender bias that male promiscuity is acceptable
    but female promiscuity must be punished
  • in the melancholy reiteration of female
    defeat at the hands of the fictionalizing male
    libertine, Fantomina provides only a temporary
    respite from the ultimate persecution necessarily
    awaiting the seduced maiden (Croskery 25).
  • This defeatist and anti-feminist view of
    Fantomina can be contradicted in the notion that
    in punishing the heroine, Haywood employs a
    literary technique that While the disapproving
    rhetoric that surrounds oppositional, subversive,
    or inflammatory statements ostensibly disarms
    them, those statements are themselves
    nevertheless conveyed verbatim to the reader who
    is the ultimate arbiter and who absorbs them in
    any case (Behrendt 30).

What Haywoods Communicating
  • In Fantomina Haywood confirms the
    anti-essentialist construction of femininity
    hinted at so consistently throughout her career,
    demonstrating, through her most sexually
    disruptive female character, womens capacity to
    manipulate and control the signs by which her
    social, economic and sexual position as woman is
    perceived and constructed by the public
    majority. (Potter, 176-177)?

  • Haywoods empowering of Fantomina with reason and
    rational action instead of hysterical fits makes
    her the female equivalent to Haywoods male
    rakes, who assume a series of different
    identities to court their mistresses and avert
    the possibility of discovery (Ballaster,
    Preparations to Love 60).
  • Her Design was once more to engage him, to hear
    him sigh, to see him languish, to feel the
    strenuous Pressures of his eager Arms, to be
    compelled, to be sweetly forcd to what she
    wished with equal Ardour, was what she wanted,
    and what she had formd a Stratagem to obtain, in
    which she promisd herself Success (Demaria

  • In a time when women were treated like infidels,
    Fantomina recognizes she has outsmarted
    Beauplaisir and congratulates herself on her
    victory over him But I have outwitted even the
    most Subtle of the deceiving Kind, and while he
    thinks to fool me, is himself the only beguiled
    Person (Demaria 722).

  • 1st photo http//www.answers.com/topic/eliza-haywo
  • 2nd Photo of R.S http//www.probertencyclopaedia.c
  • 3rd photo of AgtP. http//clatterymachinery.files.w
  • Ballastar, Ros. Seductive Forms Womens Amatory
    Fiction from 1684 to 1740. Oxford Clarendon
    Press, 1992.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary. A Vindication of the
    Rights of Woman. The Norton Anthology English
    Literature Vol.D. 8th ed. Ed. Stephen Greenblatt.
    New York W. W. Norton Company, Inc. 2006.
  • Behrendt, Stephen C. Introduction. Zastrozzi. By
    Percy Bysshe Shelley. 1810. Ed. Stephen C.
    Behrendt. Ontario Broadview Press Ltd. 2002.
  • Brophy, Elizabeth Bergen. Womens Lives and the
    18th-Century English Novel. Tampa University of
    South Florida Press, 1991.
  • Croskery, Margaret Case, and Anna C. Patchias.
    Introduction. Fantomina. By Eliza Haywood. 1725.
    Ed. Pettit, Croskery, Patchias. Ontario
    Broadview Press Ltd. 2004.
  • Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders. Ed. Paul A.
    Scanlon. Ontario Broadview Press Ltd. 2005.
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