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## Review Chapter 14

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### Review Chapter 14 Short Field Takeoff & Landing Takeoff Objective - Knowledge of elements Positive and accurate control of aircraft with shortest ground roll and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Review Chapter 14

1
Review Chapter 14
2
(Refer to figure 31.) What is the headwind
component for a Rwy 13 takeoff if the surface
wind is 190 at 15 knots?
3
(Refer to figure 31.) What is the headwind
component for a Rwy 13 takeoff if the surface
wind is 190 at 15 knots? 7 Knots
4
(Refer to figure 32.) GIVEN Temperature 30F
Pressure altitude 6,000 ft Weight 3,300
lb Headwind 20 kts What is the total takeoff
distance over a 50-foot obstacle?
5
Move vertically from 30oF to 6,000 feet Move to
the right to the first ref line Move up and to
the right proportionally between the guidelines
to 3,300 lbs Move down and to the right
proportionally to the headwind of 20kts Move to
the right horizontally to the right margin of the
6
(Refer to figure 35.) GIVEN Temperature 85
F Pressure altitude 6,000 ft Weight 2,800
lb Headwind 14 kts Determine the approximate
ground roll.
7
Compute 53 of the total landing distance over a
50 ft obstacle Begin at 85oF up to 6,000 ft
Proceed horizontally to ref line Proceed up and
to the right proportionally to 2,800 lb line
8
Proceed horizontally to the right to the ref
line Proceed down and to the right proportionally
between the lines to 14 kts Proceed horizontally
to the right to 1,400 Multiply by .53 to get 742
feet
9
Short Field Takeoff Landing
10
Takeoff
• Objective - Knowledge of elements
• Positive and accurate control of aircraft with
shortest ground roll and steepest angle of climb
• Proper airspeeds VR, VX, and VY

11
Takeoff
• Maintain VX 5/-0 KTS
• After clearing the obstacle accelerate to VY
5/-5
• Retract the landing gear and flaps after a
positive rate of climb or as recommended

12
Common Takeoff Errors
• Failure to use the entire runway
• Improper positioning of the flight controls and
wing flaps
• Improper engine operation during short field
takeoff and climb out

13
Common Takeoff Errors
• Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle
• Poor directional control
• Improper use of brakes

14
Short Field Landing
• Consider the wind conditions, landing surface and
obstructions
• Height of obstructions dictate how steep the
approach will have to be

15
Short Field Landing
• Descent angle will be steeper than a normal
approach. Aim point will be closer to the
obstacle
• Aim point will be short of the touchdown point
• Select a go around point, normally before
descending below barriers

16
Common Errors
• Improper use of landing performance data and
limitations
• Failure to establish approach landing
configuration at appropriate time or in proper
sequence

17
Common Errors
• Failure to maintain a stabilized approach
• Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps
and trim

18
Common Errors
• Improper removal of hand from throttle
• Improper technique during round out and touchdown

19
Common Errors
• Poor directional control after touchdown
• Improper use of brakes

20
Soft Field Takeoff Landing
21
Common Errors
• Improper initial positioning of the flight
controls or wing flaps
• Allowing the airplane to stop on the takeoff
surface prior to initiating takeoff
• Improper power application

22
Common Errors
• Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle
• Poor directional control

23
Common Errors
• Improper use of brakes
• Improper pitch attitude during liftoff
• Dragging tail of aircraft on ground

24
Common Errors
• Settling back to the runway because of too high
or too low a pitch attitude
• Failure to establish and maintain proper climb
configuration and airspeed
• Drift during climbout

25
Soft Field Landing
• Maintain crosswind correction and directional
control throughout the approach and landing
• Touch down softly, with no drift, and with the
longitudinal axis aligned with the runway

26
Soft Field Landing
• Maintain some power to assist in making a soft
touchdown
• Hold it off to slow airspeed and establish a nose
high pitch attitude

27
Soft Field Landing
• After touchdown maintain back pressure to keep
the nose wheel off the ground
• Maintain full back pressure
• Maintain after landing proper position of the
flight controls and taxi speed

28
Common Errors
• Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps
and trim
• Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle
• Improper technique during roundout and touchdown

29
Common Errors
• Failure to hold back elevator pressure after
touchdown
• Closing the throttle too soon after touchdown

30
Common Errors
• Poor directional control after touchdown
• Improper use of brakes

31
Steep Turns
32
Enter Steep Turn
• Heading toward reference point roll into a
coordinated turn with an angle of bank of 50o
5/-5
• As the turn begins, add back pressure to increase
the angle of attack

33
Enter Steep Turn
• As you go through 30o, add power if necessary to
maintain entry altitude and airspeed

34
Enter Steep Turn
• Trim to relieve excess control pressure
• Begin rollout one half the angle of bank 20-25
• Look and clear before all turns.

35
• To recover from an excessive nose-low attitude
reduce the angle of bank
• Add back elevator pressure to raise the nose
• Reestablish the desire angle of bank

36
Maintain Altitude 100
• Maintain entry altitude and airspeed throughout
the entire maneuver
• During rollout release the back pressure or if
using trim apply

37
Common Errors
• Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination
during entry and rollout
• Uncoordinated use of the flight controls

38
Common Errors
• Inappropriate control applications
• Improper technique in correcting altitude
deviations
• Loss or orientation

39
Common Errors
• Excessive deviation from desired heading during
rollout

40
Chandelles
41
Altitude
• FAA requires the maneuver be performed no lower
than 1,500 ft AGL
• Pick an altitude that is easy to identify on your
altimeter

42
Bank
• Establish but do not exceed 30o angle of bank
• Enter using a smooth coordinated level turn

43
Apply Power and Pitch
• After establishing a level 30o banked turn start
a climbing turn by applying back elevator
pressure to attain the highest pitch attitude at
the 90o point

44
Common Errors
• Improper pitch, bank, and power coordination
during entry or completion
• Pitch up too fast will cause a stall
• Pitch too slow or allow the pitch to decrease
will cause you to reach 180o point at too high an
airspeed

45
Common Errors
• Adjust power prior to the maneuver to establish
cruise flight and increase after bank is
established and as pitch is being increased
• No other power changes are made

46
Common Errors
• Uncoordinated use of flight controls
• Maintain coordinated flight
• Compensate for torque and aileron drag
• Check the ball in the inclinometer

47
Common Errors
• Improper planning and timing of pitch and bank
attitude changes
• During the first 90o of turn the bank is constant
• At the 90o point you should have reached the
maximum pitch

48
Common Errors
• During the second 90o, pitch attitude remains
constant and the bank is slowly reduced
• At the 180o point, the pitch attitude is constant
and the roll out to wings level is completed

49
Common Errors
• Plan and time the pitch and bank changes while
dividing you attention
• Factors related to failure to achieve maximum
performance
• Improper pitch
• Improper bank

50
Lazy Eights
51
Objective
• Lazy eights require smooth coordinated use of the
flight controls
• At no time are you straight and level
• Maneuver requires constantly changing control
pressure

52
Plan,Orient and Maneuver
At 45o Altitude Increasing Airspeed Decreasing
Pitch Attitude Maximum Bank Angle 15o
53
Plan,Orient and Maneuver
At 90o Altitude Maximum Airspeed Minimum Pitch
Attitude Level Bank Angle 30o
54
Plan,Orient and Maneuver
At 135o Altitude Decreasing Airspeed Increasin
g Pitch Attitude Minimum Bank Angle 15o
55
Plan,Orient and Maneuver
At 180o Altitude Entry Airspeed Entry Pitch
Attitude Level Bank Angle 0o
56
Common Errors
• Poor selection of reference points
• Easily identified
• Not too close
• Uncoordinated use of the flight controls

57
Common Errors
• Maintain coordinated flight
• Compensate for torque
• Check inclinometer
• Unsymmetrical loops from poor pitch and bank
attitude changes

58
Common Errors
• Stalling before reaching the 90o point
• Excessive diving
• Rushing the angle of bank
• Inconsistent airspeed and/or altitude at key
points

59
Common Errors
• Adjust power after the first maneuver if off
entry airspeed or altitude Loss of orientation.
Need to observe your reference point as well as
your attitude indicator, altimeter and airspeed
indicator

60
Common Errors
• Excessive deviation from reference points
• Each 45o segment must be preplanned and the
proper pitch and bank attained

61
Eights-on Pylons
62
Objective
• At a given groundspeed there is an associated
altitude at which the airplane will appear to
pivot about the point and is called the pivotal
altitude
• The higher the groundspeed the higher the pivotal
altitude

63
Objective
• In strong wind, altitude changes will be greater
e.g. 100 to 200 feet
• In light wind, altitude changes will be smaller
e.g. 50 to 100 feet
• Wind calm means no change to pivotal altitude

64
Determine the Pivotal Altitude
• To determine the pivotal altitude fly at an
altitude well above the pivotal altitude then
reduce power and descend at cruise airspeed in a
medium bank turn.

65
Determine the Pivotal Altitude
• The reference line will move back until the
pivotal altitude is reached. If you continue to
descend the reference line will move forward
• You can estimate the pivotal altitude by using
the following formula

66
Determine the Pivotal Altitude
(Groundspeed in knots)2 Pivotal
Altitude 11.3 1002 885 11.3
67
Perform the Maneuver
• As you turn into the wind the groundspeed
decreases causing the pivotal altitude to
decrease causing you to descend to maintain the
pivotal altitude

68
Orientation and Planning
• Remain oriented on the location of the pylons and
the direction of the wind
• Divide your attention between coordinated
airplane control and outside visual reference

69
Use Pivotal Altitude
• Do not use rudder to force the reference line
forward or backward to the pylon

70
Common Errors
• Faulty Entry technique
• Poor planning
• Not being at pivotal altitude
• Rolling into a bank too soon
• Poor Planning, Orientation and Division of
Attention

71
Common Errors
• Lack of anticipation of changes in groundspeed
• Poor pylon selection
• Poor division of attention. Uncoordinated flight
control applications and not looking out for
other traffic

72
Common Errors
• Uncoordinated flight control application
• Use of improper line of sight reference
• Application of rudder alone to maintain line of
sight on pylon
• Most Common Error

73
Common Errors
• Do not Yaw the wing backward with rudder if the
reference line is ahead of the pylon
• Improper timing of turn entries and rollouts
• Usually do to poor planning

74
Common Errors
• Rollout needs to be timed to allow the airplane
to proceed diagonally to a point downwind of the
second pylon

75
Common Errors
• Improper correction for wind between pylons
• Selection of pylons where there is no suitable
force landing area within gliding distance
• Large pitch and airspeed changes