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CoV, Isms, Rev of 1848, and the IR

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Title: CoV, Isms, Rev of 1848, and the IR


1
CoV, Isms, Rev of 1848, and the IR
2
Quiz 28
  1. Chrystal Palace- tell me all about it
  2. Why was GB 1st and the continent so behind?
  3. Why were textiles first?
  4. How did indust. cities change things socially?
  5. Utopian Socialism- tell me about it

3
After Napoleon
  • (1799-1815)

4
There was the.. Congress of Vienna
5
 Congress of Vienna
  • The old order
  • Metternich, of Austria
  • Principle of legitimacy
  • Royal families back on thrones of Europe
  • Goal restore old balance of power (prevent a
    future Napoleon)
  • Principle of intervention

6
Conservatives
  • Led by conservatives
  • power of authority religion societal order
  • Remember the Napoleonic code, it causes probs.
    For Conservatives.

7
Second Treaty of Paris
  • After Waterloo
  • Nov 1815
  • France reduces size and has to pay indemnity
  • Occupied by allied military

8
Holy Alliance
  • Sept 1815
  • Russia, Prussia, and Austria
  • Christian principles in both domestic and
    foreign affairs (principle of intervention)
  • Quadruple Alliance

9
England
  • Corn Law 1815
  • Stopped importing of cheaper foreign grains
  • increase in the bread cost
  • poor protest
  • Peterloo Massacre of 1819
  • crowd of reformers protesting agnst the Corn Laws
  • A bunch of people died

10
Isms
  • Larger organized systems and concepts in belief,
    ideology, doctrine, and ritual practice.

11
Liberalism
  • Foundations in the Enlightenment
  • Set of beliefs based on civil liberties
  • basic laws of freedom, speech, assembly, press
    religious toleration
  • Citizens rights to be guaranteed in writing
  • Many favored govts like a constitutional
    monarchy
  • Open to men of property do not confuse with
    democracy

12
Nationalism
  • People share language, customs, culture, history
  • believe those bonds mean they should be unified
    under a government with their interests in mind
  • Political boundaries ethnic boundaries
  • Searching for nationhood

13
Dutch Revolt (Belgium)
  • Against the Netherlands in August 1830
  • A national congress declared Belgium independent
  • They adopted a liberal constitution
  • Belgium was to remain neutral
  • Important for WWI and WWII

14
France
  • Restoration Period (1815-1830)
  • Louis XVIII (1814-1824)
  • The French Charter
  • Charles X (1824-1830)

15
Revolutions
  • 1830- Constitutional monarchy w. Louis-Phillipe
  • 1848 year of rev. against conservatism
  • France overthrew monarchy, replaced w/ Second
    Republic
  • Called for universal male suffrage
  • President Louis Napoleon (more to come on him)

16
Attempted Reforms of 2nd Republic
  • Workers led by radical republican socialist Louis
    Blanc
  • Est. National Workshops, provided relief for
    massive unemployment, satisfied soc. Belief of
    right to work

17
End of 2nd Republic
  • Socialism causes fear
  • capitalism vs. socialism result
  • June Days
  • By December 1848, Louis Napoleon (Napoleons
    nephew) elected leader

18
Nap III
  • 2nd Republic? 2nd Empire
  • Authoritarian
  • Expanded econ and Industry
  • 1860s? opposition
  • 1871? Bismarck, 3rd Republic

19
Rev of 1848
20
Prussia
  • Fred. Wm. IV agreed to new constitution
  • Frankfurt Assembly had no power, and the rev. was
    a failure
  • Incomplete until 1871

21
Austria
  • Too many nationalities, _at_ least 12
  • Hungarians
  • Metternich forced to flee Austria
  • Lombardy and Venetia, which were in Italy, but
    controlled by Austria, clamored for independence

22
Italy
  • Lombardy and Venetia against Austrian control
  • Austrians quickly reestablished control

23
What was the result of 1848 Revolutions?
  • Conservatism held on
  • Liberalism and Nationalism are going to cause
    major problems later.

24
Economic and Political Ideas
25
Adam Smith- Wealth of Nations
  • Natural freedom
  • Sovereigns
  • laissez-faire
  • let people do as they choose
  • Society is one immense system of cooperation
  • generous wages
  • price of an item

26
  • As a result of Industrialization?
  • People move to the cities
  • Urban population
  • Conditions in the cities
  • Workers
  • Form new ideas and groups

27
Socialism
  • Society owns the means of production
  • Opposite of lazzie-faire economics
  • Goal was to create equality among the classes
  • Eventually leads to the development of several
    socialist ideologies

28
French Utopian Socialism
  • Not focused on class struggle
  • Believed something was wrong,
  • Felt paternal action was the appropriate
    response.
  • Lacked any meaningful political following.
  • Heavy focus on economic planning, economic
    equality, state control of property
  • Questioned values of capitalistic framework.
  • A belief in industrialization, and its proper use
    to eradicate poverty

29
Charles Fourier (1772-1837) Socialist
Communities
  • Suggested each worker have several jobs and
    wander around from one to another so as to avoid
    getting bored
  • Phalanxes
  • Communities on about 5000 acres of land with 1500
    people. Agrarian and industrial production
  • Supported emancipation of women

30
Louis Blanc (1811 1882)
  • Organization of Work (1839)
  • end competition, but not overhaul society
  • political reform to give vote to working class
    who would take control peacefully
  • Govt should set up workshops to ensure
    full-employment

31
Pierre Proudhon (1809-1865)
  • What is Property 1840
  • Property was just worker profit that was stolen
    from the individual
  • Attacked banking systems for never lending credit
    to poor, people should be allowed to pursue
    enterprise
  • Seen as an Anarchist b/c he feared power of state
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