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Guided Notes About Sedimentary Rocks

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Title: Guided Notes About Sedimentary Rocks


1
Guided Notes About Sedimentary Rocks
2
1) What are sediments, and how do they form
sedimentary rocks?
  • Sediments are pieces of solid material that have
    been deposited on Earths surface.
  • When sediments become cemented together, they
    form sedimentary rocks.

3
2) What is chemical weathering?
  • Chemical weathering occurs when the minerals in a
    rock are dissolved or otherwise chemically
    changed.

4
3) What is physical weathering?
  • Physical weathering occurs when rock fragments
    break off the solid rock along fractures or grain
    boundaries.
  • The minerals remain chemically unchanged.

5
4) Describe clastic sediment and state how it
forms.
  • Clastic sediments are produced by weathering.
    They have worn surfaces and rounded corners
    caused by physical abrasion during erosion and
    transport.

6
5) What is erosion? What are the 4 main agents of
erosion?
  • Erosion is the removal and movement of surface
    material from one location to another.
  • Wind
  • Moving water
  • Gravity
  • Glaciers

7
6) In which direction does erosion almost always
carry materials?
  • Downhill

8
7) What is deposition? When are sediments
deposited?
  • Deposition occurs when sediments are laid down on
    the ground or sink to the bottom of bodies of
    water.
  • Sediments are deposited when transportation stops.

9
8) Why do sediments deposit in sorted layers?
  • Faster moving water can transport larger
    particles. As water slows down, the largest
    particles settle out first, then the
    next-largest, so that different-sized particles
    are sorted into layers.

10
9) Which erosional forces do NOT deposit sediment
in layers?
  • Glaciers
  • Landslides

11
10) What is lithification, and where does it
occur?
  • Lithification is the physical and chemical
    processes that transform sediments into
    sedimentary rocks.
  • It occurs in sedimentary basins, where the bottom
    layers are subjected to increasing temperature
    and pressure.

12
11) What are the 2 steps of lithification?...
  1. Compactionthe weight of overlying sediments
    forces sediment grains closer together
  2. Cementationtemperatures are high enough to cause
    mineral growth, which cements sediment grains
    together into solid rock

13
12) Describe the 2 types of cementation.
  1. A new mineral, such as calcite or iron oxide,
    grows between sediment grains as dissolved
    minerals precipitate out of groundwater.
  2. Existing mineral grains grow larger as more of
    the same mineral precipitates from groundwater
    and crystallizes around them.

14
13) What determines the primary feature of
sedimentary rocks?
  • The primary feature of sedimentary rocks is
    bedding, which is determined by the method of
    transport

15
14) What is graded bedding, and where is it most
observed?
  • Graded bedding is bedding in which the particle
    sizes become progressively larger and coarser
    towards the bottom.
  • It is most often observed in marine sedimentary
    rocks that were deposited by underwater
    landslides.

16
15) How is an organism preserved as a fossil?
  • If an organism is buried before it decomposes and
    is further buried without being disturbed, then
    it will become a fossil.

17
16) What happens to a fossilized organism during
lithification?
  • During lithification, parts of the organism can
    be replaced by minerals and turned into rock.

18
17) What 3 important pieces of information do
fossils provide?
  • The types of organisms that lived in the distant
    past
  • The environments that existed in the past
  • How organisms have changed over time

19
18) How are sedimentary rocks classified? What
are the 3 classes?
  • Sedimentary rocks are classified by how they were
    formed.
  • Clastic
  • Chemical
  • Organic

20
19) What is the difference between conglomerate
and breccia?
  • Conglomerates have rounded particles while
    breccias contain angular fragments of rock.

21
20) How and where do sandstones form?
  • Sandstones form when sand-sized rock and mineral
    fragments are buried and lithified.
  • This often occurs in stream channels, beaches,
    oceans and deserts.

22
21) What is porosity, and how does the porosity
of sandstone
  • Porosity is the of open space between grains in
    a rock.
  • Sandstones have high porosity, which allows
    liquids such as water or oil to flow through them.

23
22) Why doesnt shale or siltstone have high
porosity?
  • Neither shale nor siltstone have high porosity
    because their particles are compacted very
    closely together, resulting in little open space
    between grains.

24
23) What are evaporates, and how do they form?
  • Evaporates are the layers of chemical sedimentary
    rocks that result when minerals precipitate out
    of saturated bodies of water.

25
24) How does limestone form from ocean animals?
  • Some ocean animals use calcium carbonate
    dissolved in seawater to make their shells. When
    these animals die, their shells settle to the
    bottom and form thick layers of calcite, which is
    buried and lithified to form limestone.

26
25) How does coal form?
  • Coal forms when thick layers of vegetation slowly
    accumulate in swamps or coastal areas. This
    plant material is slowly buried and compressed,
    which lithifies it into coal.

27
26) List the major resources provided by
sandstone and limestone
  • Sandstone uranium, oil, natural gas,
  • groundwater,
  • building materials
  • Limestone cement materials,
  • blocks for construction
  • phosphate
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