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Theoretical Concepts on different schools on resolving conflicts The Conflict Management School


Title: Unit II: Theoretical Concepts on Conflict, Conflict Analysis & Conflict Mapping 1. Theoretical Concepts on different schools on resolving conflicts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theoretical Concepts on different schools on resolving conflicts The Conflict Management School

Theoretical Concepts on different schools on
resolving conflictsThe Conflict Management
Peacebuilding Debated Context
  • Conflict is a divergence of interests, views or
    behavior between persons or groups, and is normal
    in any society. When dealt with in a constructive
    way, conflict can lead to positive outcomes for
    individuals and society. However, conflict can
    also lead to violence when channeled
  • Since the end of World War II there had been 228
    armed conflicts in 148 locations around the
    globe. In 2004 the number of wars and armed
    conflicts was estimated to range from 30 (Harbom
    and Wallensteen 2005) to 42 (Schreiber 2005)
    depending on the definition of armed conflict.
  • There are different definitions of armed
    conflict in the literature. Their common
    determinants are that armed conflicts involve
    organized, armed groups, in most cases with the
    government as a party to the conflict.

Peacebuilding Debated Context
  • ?? The Uppsala Conflict Data Program
    ( is frequently used
    data sets in the world.
  • ?? In order to be an Armed Conflict there should
    be at least 25 battle-related deaths per calendar
  • ?? In order to be a War, there should be at least
    more than 1000 battlerelated deaths per calendar
  • ?? Peacebuilding is understood as an overarching
    term to describe a long-term process covering all
    activities with the overall objective to prevent
    violent outbreaks of conflict or to sustainably
    transform armed conflicts into constructive
    peaceful ways of managing conflict. This
    definition, however, is only partial because it
    is not entirely clear on the scope and time frame
    of peacebuilding.

Peacebuilding Debated Context
  • ?? In the peacebuilding discourse, Galtung
    (1969) distinguishes two forms of peacenegative
    peace (end of violence) and positive peace
    (peaceful society at all levels).
  • ?? A narrow definition of peacebuilding based on
    the concept of negative peace is evident in the
    1992 UN Agenda for Peace where the aim of
    peacebuilding is defined as preventing large
    scale violence or the recurrence of violence
    immediately after wars or armed conflicts (1-3
    years, maximum 5 years).
  • ?? A wider definition sees the end of
    peacebuilding when a positive peace has been
  • ?? Thus Positive Peacebuilding aims at
    preventing and managing armed conflict and
    sustaining peace after large-scale organized
    violence has ended in order to create conducive
    conditions for economic reconstruction,
    development and democratization.

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Peacebuilding Different Schools
  • ?? Four schools of though can be distinguished
    within peace research. These schools use
    different terminologies, and have different
    conceptual understandings, approaches and actors.
    The history of these schools of thought is
    closely linked to the history and evolution of
    the field of
  • Peacebuilding.
  • ?? They are namely
  • ?? The Conflict Management School
  • ?? The Conflict Resolution School
  • ?? The Complementary School
  • ?? The Conflict Transformation School

The Conflict Management School
  • ?? The approach of the Conflict Management
    school is to end wars through different
    diplomatic initiatives. This is the oldest school
    of thought, closely linked to the
    institutionalization of peacebuilding in
    international law.
  • ?? The peacebuilders within the logic of this
    school are external diplomats from bilateral or
    multilateral organizations.
  • ?? Its theoretical approach is referred to as
    outcome-oriented approach, which aims to identify
    and bring to the negotiating table leaders of the
    conflict parties. Its main focus is on the
    short-term management of the armed conflict.
  • ?? Recent examples include the Camp David
    agreement and the Sudan peace accord.

The Conflict Management School
  • ?? Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, we
    could state that the father of conflict
    management is Thomas C. Schelling, an American
    economist and Nobel Prize winner, who authored
    the Strategy of Conflict in 1960. Schellings
    main goal was to lay the foundation for a theory
    of conflict that would includee the fields of
    economics, psychology, sociology and the law.
  • ?? Research and theory on conflict management
    has been further developed by Allan Horwitz,
    Calvin Morill, James Tucker, Mark Cooney, M.P.
    Baumgartner, Roberta Senechal de la Roche, Marian
    Borg, Ellis Godard, Scott Phillips, Bradley
    Campbell, Willam Ury, Roger Fisher.
  • ?? Conflict Management Approach is useful in
    many fields such as Business Management, Law,
    International Relations, Political Science and
    also at the personal and intimate level.

The Conflict Management School
  • ?? Conflict Management is a process of making
    progress developing mutual gains of both
    parties, achieving agreements, lying foundations
    for further negotiations or managing the conflict
    as much as possible to reduce violence.
  • ?? In legal sense CM is application of
    existing laws regulations to ensure the rights
    provides remedies that reconcile past
  • ?? In the political discourse management of
    conflict is sharing of power and privileges.
  • ?? Two schools of thoughts prevails within CM
  • ?? Conflict as Pathological Dysfunctional
    needs to be suppressed or end it.
  • ?? Conflict as functional means for Social
    Change constructive social process.

The Conflict Management School
  • ?? Power mediation is a special form of conflict
    management, with the same criteria as the
    outcome-oriented approach but including the
    possibility of applying external power, including
    financial carrots and/or military sticks, on the
  • ?? Examples include the 1995 US mediated peace
    treaty for Bosnia, when the US linked
    reconstruction support to a peace agreement, and
    threatened the bombing of Bosnia-Serb artillery
    in case no agreement was reached.
  • ?? There are two forms of interventions in
    Conflict Managements

The Conflict Management School
  • ?? What forms and means used to for conflict
  • ?? Right - based Approach Legal
  • ?? Interest based Approach Alternate
  • ?? Right based approach is the use of the
    existing legal instruments for interventions in
    conflicts such as litigations arbitration
    procedures through courts police.
  • ?? Interest based approach look for mediation,
    negotiations, and other collaborative methods for
    conflict interventions.

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The Conflict Management School
  • ?? Strategies of CM are force, withdrawal,
    collaboration, accommodation, compromise,
    consensus, passive acceptance, cheating, lying,
    requesting, maneuvering, pressuring, threatening,
    demanding, monitoring, arguing by rules, staying
    neutral, exploiting etc.
  • ?? The preference for a particular CM procedures
    depends upon the time and context.
  • ?? Most used approaches for intervening conflict
    through CM approaches are
  • ?? Negotiation
  • ?? Mediation in Conflict
  • ?? Arbitration in Conflict
  • ?? Litigations in conflicts

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The Conflict Management School
Critique of Conflict Management ?? The Conflict
Management school has been criticized because
mediators tend to concentrate solely on the top
leadership of the conflicting parties, are not
always neutral (in internal conflicts), and the
approach overlooks deep causes of conflicts and
thus cannot guarantee long-term stability of the
peace agreement. ?? Many criticize that CM only
work on to establish Negative Peace and
completely undermines the aspects of Positive
Peace. ?? It is only involves the High Level
People completely undermining the role of the
other people or civil society thus neglecting the
peoples concerns and needs.
The Conflict Resolution School
  • There are three approaches to act or intervene
    on any conflict.
  • They are
  • Rights Based Approach
  • Interest Based Approach
  • Need Based Approach
  • Conflict resolution as a discipline diverged
    from power-based conflict theory, which dominated
    and still dominates political science, and
    international relations and converged from
    psychology and sociology, which was interested in
    group dynamics, motivation and relationships
    between institutional structures.
  • So many view CR CM as identical but CM is an
    outcome oriented approach whereas CM is a
    process oriented approach.

The Conflict Resolution School
  • The foundations of this discipline is emerged
    in Europe and North America and were particularly
    shaped in the twentieth century by the first and
    second world wars.
  • Principal antecedents of conflict resolution
    included philosopher and sociologist Georg Simmel
    (1858-1914) and Gestalt (influential on social
    psychology) psychologist Kurt Lewin (1890- 1947).
    Modern conflict resolution scholars, often quote
    Georg Simmel, for his contribution to the field
    for his book Conflict, published posthumously in
    English in 1955.
  • Other contributors to the development of this
    schools are Lewis Coser, Kenneth Boulding, Anatol
    Rapoport, Johan Galtung, John Burton, Peter
    Wallensteen, Roget Fisher, William Ury, William I
    Zartman, Edward Azar, Thomas Ohlson, Paul Rogers,
    Mohammed Abu-Nimer, Roger Fisher, Willam Ury etc.

The Conflict Resolution School
  • This schools was in academic research in the
    1970s, adopting strategies from
    socio-psychological conflict resolution at the
    interpersonal level.
  • Normative political theory saw conflict as a
    competitive struggle to be won by one side. In
    contrast, needs-based conflict resolution
    theorists developed a cooperative approach to
    conflict resolution, focusing on fundamental
    human needs, to encourage win-win solutions.
  • Thus Conflict resolution is any reduction in
    the severity of a conflict which may involve
    conflict management, but adopt less extreme
    tactics where conflicting parties reach
    agreement on enough issues that the conflict
    stops or removal of the underlying causes of the
  • The approach of the Conflict Resolution School
    is to solve the underlying causes of conflict and
    rebuild destroyed relationships between the

The Conflict Resolution School
  • Initially in Conflict Resolution school,
    peacebuilders were mainly Western academic
    institutions carrying out conflict resolution
    workshops. The principle of these workshops is to
    bring individuals from the conflict parties
    together that are close to or can influence their
    leaders. Workshops are designed to rebuild
    relationships between the representatives of the
    conflict parties and work with them to solve the
    causes of the conflict.
  • As the approach evolved, additional
    participants entered the field, such as
    international or local NGOs, CSOs, religious
    leaders who can exerts some influence over
    conflicting parties. The common features are that
    all actors work to address the root causes of
    conflict with relationship-building and long-term
    resolutionoriented approaches.

The Conflict Resolution School
The Conflict Resolution School
  • The methods used in Need Based Conflict
    Resolution are
  • Integrative Bargaining Workshop
  • Analytic or Interactive Problem solving
  • Human Relations workshops
  • Integrative bargaining (Principled
    Negotiations) involves both concession making
    and searching for mutually profitable solutions.
    This tries to move beyond position-based
    bargaining and determine underlying interests
  • Analytical problem solving workshop is
    nontraditional, nongovernmental approach
    emphasizing analytical dialogue and
    problem-solving. It begins with an analysis of
    the political needs and fears Track II

The Conflict Resolution School
  • Human Relation workshops recognize and deal
    with dehumanizing biases, discriminations, and
    prejudices and creates learning environments that
    contribute to positive interpersonal relations
    and the self-esteem of all parties
  • Conflict resolution scholarship, despite its
    preference for a needs based or cooperation
    approach to conflict resolution, still
    acknowledges the place power-based and
    rights-based methods have in conflict resolution.
  • Realist theory argues that international
    security is best achieved through the action of
    Great Powers which can create regional power
    balances in unstable regions across the globe, by
    force or by geostrategic mediation
  • Thus CR is incorporates CM Approach within
    itself and give the need based dimentions to the

The Conflict Resolution School
  • Thus the approach of the Conflict Resolution
    school is to solve the underlying causes of
    conflict and rebuild destroyed relationships
    between the parties.
  • Conflict resolution is a process which is
    worked our with parties
  • 1. Voluntarily Ripeness, Leadership, Civil
  • 2. Agreement Big or Small
  • 3. Regulate the issue
  • 4. Stop actions Ceasefire
  • 5. Implementation of Agreements
  • Conflict Resolution is a social situation where
    the armed conflicting parties in a (voluntary)
    agreements resolve to peacefully live and/or
    dissolve their basic incompatibilities and
    henceforth cease to use arms against one another.
    Uppsala University.

The Conflict Resolution School
  • Criticisms of Conflict Resolution Schools
  • The critics of CR schools points out that CR
    undermines the basic definition of conflict as
    Conflict cannot be resolved, it can either
    managed or transformed to other forms.
  • Conflict Resolution is not necessary identical
    with Peace The definitions is dependent on what
    the parties wants or can agree to include.
  • There is a danger that the agreed form of
    conflict resolution will contain privileges for
    the armed groups, at the expenses of other
    interests in the society.
  • Conflict Resolution school has been highly
    criticized, especially by supporters of the
    Conflict Management school, because the process
    is too lengthy to be able to stop wars and
    because improving communications and building
    relationships between conflict parties do not
    necessarily result in an agreement to end the

The Conflict Resolution School
  • Criticisms of Conflict Resolution Schools
  • Most of the critics also criticize that
    Conflict Resolution is rather a Conflict
    Manipulation as parties use conflict resolution
    process whilst in reality, dialogue is only
    engaged to buy-time and increase bargaining
  • Some also criticize that conflicting parties
    use Conflict Resolution Approach to legitimize
    their actions and a window of opportunity for
    them to be a legitimate parties.
  • Similarly there is also criticism regarding the
    sustainability of the Conflict Resolution
    approach as most of the Peace Process which adopt
    Conflict Resolution Approach has crumbled after
    certain period of time. Most of the Peace
    Agreements are violated or broken after sometime.
  • From 1989 2005, there are 144 Peace
    Agreements which resolved 42 conflicts. So this
    questions on the approach as a whole regarding
    its sustainability.

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