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Congenital%20Heart%20Defects

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Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Defects Congenital Heart Defects Electrical Conduction System Sino Atrial (SA) Node sup/post rt atrium Atrial ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Congenital%20Heart%20Defects


1
Congenital Heart Defects
2
Congenital Heart Defects
3
Congenital Heart Defects
4
Electrical Conduction System
Sino Atrial (SA) Node sup/post rt atrium
Atrial Ventricular (AV) Node inf rt atrium
AV Bundle (of His) sup IV septum
L and R Bundle Branches IV septum
Purkinje Fibers both ventricles
5
The Conducting System of the Heart
6
An Electrocardiogram (ECG) trace
7
The Electrocardiogram
Recording of the electrical activities in the
heart
P wave Atrial Depolarization
QRS complex Ventricular Depolarization
T wave Ventricular Repolarization
8
Systemic Vessels
9
Blood
10
Blood Plasma Formed (Cellular) Elements
  • Plasma
  • 55 blood volume
  • 92 of plasma is water
  • High dissolved O2 content
  • Dissolved proteins
  • Minerals, glucose, ions.
  • Cells
  • 45 blood volume
  • RBCs ( 99 of cells)
  • WBCs ( 1 of cells)

11
The Proteins in Plasma
  • Albumins
  • 60 of plasma proteins.
  • Globulins
  • 35 of plasma proteins.
  • Fibrinogen
  • For clotting reaction, forms fibrin.

serum plasma without clotting proteins
12
Cellular Components
RBCs (erythrocytes) 99 of all cells.
Hematocrit of blood occupied by cellular
components.
(packed RBC volume)
Lacks nuclei, mitochondria and ribosomes.
Anaerobic metabolism Life span 120 days
13
Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of
Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells (RBCs) on the tip
of a hypodermic needle.
14
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
Granular Leukocytes
  • Neutrophils 70 of circulating leukocytes
  • Multi-lobed nucleus (3 or more), mobile
    phagocytes.
  • Eosinophils much less common
  • Bi-lobed nucleus with orange staining granules.
  • Basophils relatively rare
  • Bi-lobed with dark staining granules, releases
    histamine.

15
Agranular Leukocytes
  • Lymphocytes primary cell of lymphatic system
  • T-cells attack foreign cells directly.
  • B-cells produce antibodies.
  • Monocytes
  • Large nucleus, differentiate into Macrophages.

16
n
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e
17
  • Platelet cells (Thrombocytes)
  • Fragments of cells (Megakaryocytes) for clotting.

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
18
(No Transcript)
19
Arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Heart!
Venules
Veins
20
Control of the Heart
  • Basic rate established by pacemaker cells inside
    the heart (myocardium) called
  • intrinsic myogenic control
  • Modified by Autonomic N.S. (ANS)
  • Para decreases rate via the Vagus n. X.
  • Sym increases heart rate and force of
    contraction via cardiac accelerator n.

21
The Autonomic Innervation of the Heart
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