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The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General Semantics and Lateral Thinking

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Title: The FACT Method: Creative Problem Solving with General Semantics and Lateral Thinking


1
The FACT Method Creative Problem Solving with
General Semantics and Lateral Thinking
  • If you can see the world clearly then your
    thinking and actions will be appropriate.
  • Edward de Bono

2
Presentation Outline
  • Definition
  • Modes of Thinking
  • Practical Example
  • Lateral Thinking Techniques
  • Other Techniques
  • Conclusion

...if you can learn how to 'think' in terms of
'facts' instead of definition, we will have
achieved what we wanted to achieve. Alfred
Korzybski
3
Theme
  • In order to investigate problem solving, we need
    to distinguish between a general structure or
    process for the solving of problems and the
    techniques used within that process. These
    techniques will vary depending on the domain of
    operation and the specific problem.

4
The FACT Method
  • F Find the problem or be found by it.
    Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up/Define.

5
The FACT Method
  • F Find the problem or be found by it.
    Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up.
  • A Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions
    (gather information)

6
The FACT Method
  • F Find the problem or be found by it.
    Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up.
  • A Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions
    (gather information)
  • C Consider/Cogitate/Comprehend/Change
    (analyse information, create, consider and
    change solutions)

7
The FACT Method
  • F Find the problem or be found by it.
    Formulate/Feedback/Follow-up.
  • A Acquire/Apprehend/Aware/Assumptions
    (gather information)
  • C Consider/Cogitate/Comprehend/Change
    (analyse information, create, consider and
    change solutions)
  • T Task/Tell/Transmit/Try/Test/Trial (make
    decision, implement, check)

8
The FACT Method
9
The Scientific Method
  • 1. Identify a Problem
  • 2. Analyse it
  • 3. Form possible solutions
  • 4. Experiment
  • 5. Observe
  • 6. Form conclusions
  • (From Twelve General Semantics Lessons for
    Middle School Students, Martin Levinson, Ph.D.)

10
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1
  • Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor Vertical
    and Lateral

11
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1
  • Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor Vertical
    and Lateral
  • Jerome Bruner, American psychologist Paradigmatic
    (propositions) and Narrative (story)

12
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 1
  • Edward de Bono, consultant, inventor Vertical
    and Lateral
  • Jerome Bruner, American psychologist Paradigmatic
    (propositions) and Narrative (story)
  • Robert Graves, English poet Prose
    (logical/scientific) and Poetic
    (associational/mythic) Analeptic (past) and
    Proleptic (future)

13
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English
    poet Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and
    Fancy

14
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English
    poet Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and
    Fancy
  • William Blake, English poet Daughters of
    Imagination and Daughters of Memory

15
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 2
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English
    poet Imagination (Primary and Secondary) and
    Fancy
  • William Blake, English poet Daughters of
    Imagination and Daughters of Memory
  • Ships sail the sea (Keels plough the
    earth) Synecdoche, Metaphor and Metonymy

16
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3
  • Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian

17
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3
  • Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian
  • Waking and Dream Einstein's Thought Experiments,
    etc

18
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3
  • Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian
  • Waking and Dream Einstein's Thought Experiments,
    etc
  • Part and Whole (Gestalt)

19
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3
  • Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian
  • Waking and Dream Einstein's Thought Experiments,
    etc
  • Part and Whole (Gestalt)
  • Divergent and Convergent Thinking

20
Different Modes of 'Thinking' 3
  • Aristotelian and Non-Aristotelian
  • Waking and Dream Einstein's Thought Experiments,
    etc
  • Part and Whole (Gestalt)
  • Divergent and Convergent Thinking
  • Thesis--Antithesis--Synthesis

21
Jung's Psychological Types
  • Judgement and Perception

22
Multiple Intelligences
  • Visual/spatial
  • Verbal/linguistic
  • Logical/mathematical
  • Bodily/kinesthetic
  • Musical/rhythmic
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • (From the work of Howard Gardner.)?

23
A Practical FACT
24
TEC
  • T Target the precise focus of the thinking
  • Task the thinking task that is to
    be performed
  • (e.g. review, fault
    finding/correction, problem finding/solving
  • E Expand/Explore (positive and free-flowing)
  • C Contract/Conclude (a narrowing down phase
    trying to make sense of what was
    found and to find a conclusion)
  • A very simple structure for focussing thinking
    and making of it a deliberate task. Can be done
    as a five-minute think T (1 min), E (3 mins),
    C (2 mins).

25
GS Principles and Techniques
  • The map is not the territory.
  • The map doesn't cover all the territory.
  • The map is self-reflexive.
  • The word isn't the thing.
  • Extensional/Intensional.
  • Non-Allness.
  • Non-Elementalism.
  • Non-Identity.
  • Organism-as-a-Whole-in-Environments.
  • Over-/Under-/Un-Defined Words.
  • Dating.
  • Delayed Evaluating.
  • Et Cetera (Etc.).
  • Hyphens.
  • Indexing.
  • Logical Fate.
  • Multiordinality.
  • Multi-valued Orientation.
  • Quotes.
  • Self-reflexiveness.
  • Structure, Relations, Order.
  • Structural Differential.
  • Time-binding.

26
Logic bubble
  • That bubble of perception within which a person
    is acting and which involves that persons
    beliefs, understandings, experience and their
    perceptions of circumstance, structure, context
    and relationships.

27
Logic bubble
Logical Fate
  • That bubble of perception within which a person
    is acting and which involves that persons
    beliefs, understandings, experience and their
    perceptions of circumstance, structure, context
    and relationships.

28
AGO (F/A)
  • A Aims
  • G Goals
  • O Objectives
  • This is an example of an attention-directing
    thinking tool. Although there are differences
    between these words, these are ignored for the
    sake of doing some attention-directing the
    task is to set up objectives or to discover the
    objectives that already seem to be in use.

29
AGO (F/A)
Multiordinality, Time-binding, Extensional
Thinking
  • A Aims
  • G Goals
  • O Objectives
  • This is an example of an attention-directing
    thinking tool. Although there are differences
    between these words, these are ignored for the
    sake of doing some attention-directing the
    task is to set up objectives or to discover the
    objectives that already seem to be in use.

30
FIFO (A)
  • inFormation In, inFormation Out
  • A deliberate survey of what is available and what
    is still needed. FI the information already
    gathered is examined using dense reading
    (reading between the lines and considering the
    implications of what is read) and all
    implications and inferences are extracted. FO
    the gaps in the information are then
    identified, and filled in as much as possible.

DIV
31
FIFO (A)
Map/Territory, Multi-valued Orientation
  • inFormation In, inFormation Out
  • A deliberate survey of what is available and what
    is still needed. FI the information already
    gathered is examined using dense reading
    (reading between the lines and considering the
    implications of what is read) and all
    implications and inferences are extracted. FO
    the gaps in the information are then
    identified, and filled in as much as possible.

DIV
32
Brainstorming (A/C)
  • Generally, a solution-generating tool. My
    guidelines
  • 1) The more the merrier
  • 2) The wilder the better
  • 3) No self-criticism or other-criticism
  • Is better performed individually than in groups.
  • Do something only you can come up withthat none
    of your friends or family would think of.

DIV
33
Brainstorming (A/C)
Delayed Evaluating, Etc.
  • Generally, a solution-generating tool. My
    guidelines
  • 1) The more the merrier
  • 2) The wilder the better
  • 3) No self-criticism or other-criticism
  • Is better performed individually than in groups.
  • Do something only you can come up withthat none
    of your friends or family would think of.

DIV
34
PO (A/C)
  • HypothesisSupposePossiblePoetry
  • PO can stand for provocative operation, an
    attempt to move thinking into newer, more
    productive areas, a method of movement not of
    judgement. Three possible methods
  • 1) The Stepping Stone (Po cars would limit their
    own parking The po factory should be
    downstream of itself)
  • 2) The Escape Method (looking at things in a
    situation that we may take for granted)
  • 3) The Random Stimulation Method (through the use
    of a random word or object or person or
    magazine or exhibition, and following
    associations)

DIV
35
PO (A/C)
Structure-Relations-Order, Non-Allness, Etc.
  • HypothesisSupposePossiblePoetry
  • PO can stand for provocative operation, an
    attempt to move thinking into newer, more
    productive areas, a method of movement not of
    judgement. Three possible methods
  • 1) The Stepping Stone (Po cars would limit their
    own parking The po factory should be
    downstream of itself)
  • 2) The Escape Method (looking at things in a
    situation that we may take for granted)
  • 3) The Random Stimulation Method (through the use
    of a random word or object or person or
    magazine or exhibition, and following
    associations)

DIV
36
APC (A/C)
  • A Alternatives
  • P Possibilities
  • C Choices
  • This is another attention-directing tool. In
    different situations one or other word may seem
    more appropriate, but no attempt should be made
    to distinguish between them. Doing an APC means
    making a deliberate effort to generate
    alternatives at any particular point.

DIV
37
APC (A/C)
Non-Allness, Non-Elementalism, Non-Identity, Etc.
  • A Alternatives
  • P Possibilities
  • C Choices
  • This is another attention-directing tool. In
    different situations one or other word may seem
    more appropriate, but no attempt should be made
    to distinguish between them. Doing an APC means
    making a deliberate effort to generate
    alternatives at any particular point.

DIV
38
EBS (A/C)
  • Examine Both Sides
  • This type of exploration of both sides of a
    situation/argument is meant to be neutral and
    objective. The intention is to examine the
    territory of the situation for a constructive
    purpose. The tool leads easily into ADI.

DIV
39
EBS (A/C)
Organism-as-a-Whole-in-Environments
  • Examine Both Sides
  • This type of exploration of both sides of a
    situation/argument is meant to be neutral and
    objective. The intention is to examine the
    territory of the situation for a constructive
    purpose. The tool leads easily into ADI.

DIV
40
OPV (A/C)
  • Other Person's Views
  • This thinking tool overlaps with the EBS and the
    logic bubble. In using this tool, the thinker
    tries to put him/herself into the shoes of the
    other person, in order to be able to perceive the
    world as that person sees it. There are two
    parts 1) identifying the people involved and 2)
    putting oneself in their shoes. The tool
    effectively requires the thinker to be
    objectively trying to see the world from the
    other persons point of view.

DIV
41
OPV (A/C)
Non-Allness
  • Other Person's Views
  • This thinking tool overlaps with the EBS and the
    logic bubble. In using this tool, the thinker
    tries to put him/herself into the shoes of the
    other person, in order to be able to perceive the
    world as that person sees it. There are two
    parts 1) identifying the people involved and 2)
    putting oneself in their shoes. The tool
    effectively requires the thinker to be
    objectively trying to see the world from the
    other persons point of view.

DIV
42
ADI (A/C)
  • A Agreement
  • D Disagreement
  • I Irrelevance
  • Used after the EBS mapping exercise. The two maps
    are compared (from the examination of both sides)
    and the areas of agreement are noted. Next, the
    areas of disagreement finally, the areas of
    irrelevance.

CON
43
ADI (A/C)
The map doesn't cover all the territory.
  • A Agreement
  • D Disagreement
  • I Irrelevance
  • Used after the EBS mapping exercise. The two maps
    are compared (from the examination of both sides)
    and the areas of agreement are noted. Next, the
    areas of disagreement finally, the areas of
    irrelevance.

CON
44
CAF (A/C)
  • Consider All Factors
  • Another attention-directing tool. The tool
    means considering all the factors that are
    pertinent to a particular situation, without any
    effort to evaluate the factors. When doing a CAF,
    we are trying to discover what has been left
    out and what we ought to consider as well.

DIV/CON
45
CAF (A/C)
The word isn't the thing.
  • Consider All Factors
  • Another attention-directing tool. The tool
    means considering all the factors that are
    pertinent to a particular situation, without any
    effort to evaluate the factors. When doing a CAF,
    we are trying to discover what has been left
    out and what we ought to consider as well.

DIV/CON
46
HV/LV (A/C)
  • High Value/Low Value
  • A useful attention-directing tool, to
    distinguish the values occurring in any
    situation. In general the high values are those
    that determine action and the low ones are those
    that have need to be taken into account. They can
    be different for different people involved in the
    situation.

DIV/CON
47
HV/LV (A/C)
Non-Allness
  • High Value/Low Value
  • A useful attention-directing tool, to
    distinguish the values occurring in any
    situation. In general the high values are those
    that determine action and the low ones are those
    that have need to be taken into account. They can
    be different for different people involved in the
    situation.

DIV/CON
48
PMI (A/C)
  • P Plus (the good points the things that
    worked)
  • M Minus (the bad points the things that may
    not have worked or could have work
    better)
  • I Interesting (the interesting points It
    might be interesting to see if...)
  • Another attention-directing tool, usually done
    over a two- or three-minute period.

DIV/CON
49
PMI (A/C)
The map is self-reflexive.
  • P Plus (the good points the things that
    worked)
  • M Minus (the bad points the things that may
    not have worked or could have work
    better)
  • I Interesting (the interesting points It
    might be interesting to see if...)
  • Another attention-directing tool, usually done
    over a two- or three-minute period.

DIV/CON
50
C S (A/C/T)
  • Consequences and Sequels
  • This tool is used to consider the consequences of
    an action or a decision. Four time zones are
    established (usually arbitrary) Immediate (up to
    one year), Short-term (one to five), Medium-term
    (five to 20), Long-term (over 20). Each time zone
    is focussed on in turn.

CON
51
C S (A/C/T)
Logical Fate, Dating, Indexing.
  • Consequences and Sequels
  • This tool is used to consider the consequences of
    an action or a decision. Four time zones are
    established (usually arbitrary) Immediate (up to
    one year), Short-term (one to five), Medium-term
    (five to 20), Long-term (over 20). Each time zone
    is focussed on in turn.

CON
52
PISCO 1 (FACT)
  • P Purpose
  • The purpose of the thinking. The expected result.
    the reason for the thinking. Similar to T of
    TEC, but with more emphasis in why the thinking
    is being done.
  • I Input
  • The input of information, experience and all the
    ingredients that need to go into the thinking.
    Similar to the E of TEC. Tools such as CAF, C
    S, OPV can be used to develop a rich map.

53
PISCO 2 (FACT)
  • S Solutions
  • The finding of alternative solutions, ideas or
    approaches to the matter at hand. A narrowing
    down similar to the C of TEC.
  • C Choices
  • The choice between the alternatives on offer,
    using evaluations and decisions until only one
    alternative remains.
  • O Operation
  • The action stage. The implementation of the final
    idea. What steps are to be taken to put the final
    choice into place?

Extensional
54
Transformations 1
  • One general technique, as identified by David
    Hewson, is to transform some aspect of the
    original problem to produce a version that can
    more easily be solved or has already been solved.
    Transformations can include
  • Korzybski Bypass Solve the problem of the
    assumptions.
  • Abstracting Bypass 1 Abstract a simpler problem
    and solve.
  • Abstracting Bypass 2 Use higher semantic
    category to replace lower one.
  • Abstracting Bypass 3 Abstract the problem to a
    map.
  • Analogy Bypass Solve an analogous problem in
    another domain.
  • Viewpoint Bypass Solve problem by shifting the
    viewpoint.

55
Transformations 2
  • Whether or not these transformations are made
    consciously or unconsciously, they can be seen as
    a variation of the logical fate concept

A1 would be the initial assumptions or structure
of the problem, with C2 the desired outcome. A2
would then be the new assumptions or structure
after the transformation operation I. The arrow
II represents the solution process of the new
version of the problem, plus the inverse
transformation that reveals the solution of the
original problem.
56
Tool and Structure Chart
57
General Semantics Chart
58
Solution of the Example (T)
59
Solution of the Example (T)
60
Brain Rules 1
  • 1 Exercise boosts brain power. Walk several
    times a week.
  • 2 The human brain evolved, too. Develop
    strong emotional environments for learning.
  • 3 Every brain is wired differently. Customise
    environments for individual learning styles.
  • 4 We don't pay attention to boring things. Do
    one thing at a time. Design learning as short
    segments, with emotional hooks.

61
Brain Rules 2
  • 5 Repeat to remember. Reproduce the learning
    situation for better recall.
  • 6 Remember to repeat. Incorporate new
    information gradually and repeat it in timed
    intervals.
  • 7 Sleep well, think well. Match chronotypes.
    Promote naps. Sleep on it.
  • 8 Stressed brains don't learn the same
    way. Get control back into your life.

62
Brain Rules 3
  • 9 Stimulate more of the senses. To learn
    best, stimulate several senses at once.
  • 10 Vision trumps all other senses. We learn
    and remember best through pictures.
  • 11 Male and female brains are different. Create
    environments where gender differences (gist
    and details) are both noted and celebrated.
  • 12 We are powerful and natural explorers. Stay
    curious.

63
Conclusion 1
  • We have examined the relationships between
    General Semantics and Edward de Bono's 'Lateral
    Thinking' in regard to problem solving.
  • We have seen how many problem solving techniques
    and concepts can be slotted into the FACT Method,
    which is primarily based on divergent and
    convergent thinking, as well as the recognition
    of different modes of thinking or evaluating
    thought, intuition, feeling, sensation.
  • As a man is, So he Sees. William Blake
  • A person does what he does because he sees the
    world as he sees it. Alfred Korzybski

64
Conclusion 2
  • Thus, it seems to me the best way of approaching
    problem-solving is through an awareness of, and a
    combination, of processes, techniques and
    perceptions from a number of disciplines General
    Semantics, Lateral Thinking, Narratology,
    Psychology, Neuroscience, etc.
  • FAC(T)IFS

65
Bibliography 1
  • De Bono, Edward. Edward De Bonos Thinking
    Course. Harlow BBC Active, 2007, 1985.
  • De Bono, Edward. Serious Creativity. London
    HarperCollins, 1992.
  • Hewson, David. 'Problem Solving with General
    Semantics'. Etc, Summer 1996.
  • Kodish, Susan Presby and Kodish, Bruce I. Drive
    Yourself Sane Using the Uncommon Sense of
    General Semantics. Pasadena Extensional
    Publishing, 2001.
  • Medina, John. Brain Rules 12 Principles for
    Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School.
    Seattle Pear Press, 2008.

66
Bibliography 2
  • Smith, Pamela Jaye. Inner Drives How to Write
    Create Characters Using the Eight Classic Centers
    of Motivation. Studio City Michael Wise
    Productions, 2005.
  • Websites
  • http//brilliantdreams.com/product/famousdreams.ht
    m, 22 August 2010.
  • http//debonothinkingsystems.com/tools/valuemedals
    .htm, 9 August 2010.
  • http//ericdigests.org/1998-1/multiple.htm, 22
    August 2010.
  • http//thisisnotthat.com/learn/language-perceptual
    -process.pdf, 22 August 2010.
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