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The Postwar Boom in America

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The Postwar Boom in America Essential Question: In what ways did the Cold War contribute to postwar prosperity in the US? First, some review Following WWII, the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Postwar Boom in America


1
The Postwar Boom in America
  • Essential Question
  • In what ways did the Cold War contribute to
    postwar prosperity in the US?

2
First, some review
  • Following WWII, the United States established
    long-term military presence in West Germany in an
    effort to do what?
  • Stop communist expansion
  • What was the Berlin Airlift?
  • The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Berlin
    Airlift, and Korean War were all attempts by US
    to do what foreign policy term that means to stop
    communism from spreading?
  • Containment
  • When Sec. of State Dulles suggested that the US
    massively retaliate against the Soviets or China
    if either invaded was called what?
  • Brinkmanship

3
More Review
  • What does the term McCarthyism mean?
  • Reckless accusation with little or no evidence
  • Government officials resorted to conformity
    during the Red Scare because they were afraid to
    be accused of being a what?
  • Communist
  • The successful launch of Sputnik in 1957 by the
    Soviets was the beginning of the what?
  • Space Race
  • What was the intent of the Truman Doctrine?
  • To rebuild European Cities
  • What caused so many Americans to believe
    communists were infiltrating the government?
  • FEAR

4
Readjustment Recovery
  • By summer 1946, 10 million men and women were
    released from armed services they were ready to
    settle
  • The GI Bill (1944) was created to help ease the
    veterans back into society and provide them with
    economic aid
  • Encouraged veterans to get higher education by
    paying part of their tuition
  • Guaranteed a years worth of unemployment benefits
    while job hunting
  • Offered low-interest, federally granted loans
    which many young couples used to buy homes and
    farms

5
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6
Housing Crisis
  • Veterans returning home faced a severe housing
    shortage
  • Many lived with relatives or in cramped
    apartments
  • William Levitt produced houses in an assembly
    line style.
  • He boasted that he could build a house in 16
    minutes
  • He offered his homes in small residential
    communities called suburbs, for less than 7,000
  • His first group of standardized homes built on a
    treeless lot was located on Long Island which he
    called Levittown

7
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8
Redefining the Family
  • Tension created by changes in mens and womens
    roles after the war lead to a higher divorce rate
  • Traditionally, men were the bread winners, while
    the women were Susie-home-makers
  • During the War, 75 of married women joined the
    workforce
  • Many were reluctant to go back because they liked
    the independence the change had brought them
  • Many did return home, but by 1950 more than 1
    million war marriages had ended in divorce

9
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10
The Feminine Mystique
  • Betty Frieden was an influential woman who wrote
    a book entitled The Feminine Mystique
  • Read through the excerpt to determine what you
    think the purpose of this book was
  • It energized a new type of womens rights
    movement that empowered women to be more
    independent and seek a live that was what they
    wanted, not what was expected of them

11
Economic Readjustment
  • US converted from a wartime economy to a
    peacetime economy
  • Because the war ended, jobs were cut that
    involved military equipment production
  • Result By March 1946, 3 million people were
    without jobs
  • Also prices of goods increased by 25 due to the
    ending of OPAs inflation control
  • Americans were also getting paid less than they
    had before

12
Trumans Sudden Presidency
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt died in 1945, launching
    Harry S. Truman into immediate presidency
  • Truman asked Eleanor if there was anything he
    could do for her
  • She replied Is there anything we can do for you?
    For you are the one in trouble now.
  • What did she mean???

13
Harry S. Truman
  • I dont know whether you fellows ever had a load
    of hay fall on you, but when they told me
    yesterday what had happened (Roosevelts death),
    I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the
    planets had fallen on me.

14
Meeting Economic Challenges
  • President Trumans Inheritance
  • When President Truman inherited the presidency,
    not only did he inherit the Cold War . . .
  • He also inherited the responsibility in restoring
    the American economy to a strong footing after
    the wars end
  • Truman Faces Strikes
  • Because of lower wages following the war, 4.5
    million men went on strike in 1946
  • Truman threatens to draft all strikers in the
    military, and take control of the RR and mines
  • The Unions gave in

15
Remarkable Recovery
  • Most economists predicted a post-war depression
  • Why didnt it happen?
  • Remember the war bonds the govt urged Americans
    to get? And the rationing?
  • People finally had money and had been without
    certain goods for so long, they were ready to
    spend their money on goods, regardless of the
    price.
  • The demands for goods forced production to
    increase, which created jobs and the cycle
    continues

16
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17
Social Unrest Persists
  • A wave of racial violence erupts in the south
  • Truman Supports Civil Rights
  • Asks for a federal anti-lynching law
  • A ban on the poll tax as a voting requirement
  • And a permanent civil rights commission
  • Congress refuses to pass any of theses, nor do
    they agree to integration in the military
  • To rebut, he issues an executive order for
    military integration, an end to racial
    discrimination in hiring, and permission of
    African Americans in neighborhoods

18
The 1948 Election
  • Despite the fact that Americans blamed Truman for
    increased inflation, the democrats nominated him
    for re-election
  • Dixiecrats
  • Southern Democrats who were opposed to Trumans
    pro-civil rights stance
  • Sought to nominate their own democratic candidate
    who was anti-civil rights
  • Governor J. Strom Thurmond of North Carolina
  • The Republicans nominated Governor Thomas E. Dewey

19
Scandalous History
  • Strom Thurmond had an illegitimate biracial
    daughter who he kept a secret!!!!
  • Essie Mae Washington-Williams
  • He represented a political party that did not
    want civil rights for blacks!!!!
  • SCANDALOUS!

20
The 1948 Election
  • Trumans Give em Hell, Harry campaign worked
  • He won in a political upset (Dixiecrats)

21
The Fair Deal
  • Trumans extension of FDRs New Deal
  • Included proposals for a nationwide system of
    compulsory health insurance and a crop-subsidy
    system to provide a steady income for farmers
  • But the Republicans and Dixiecrats in Congress
    refused both of these
  • But. . . Congress did raise the minimum wage from
    40 c to 75 c, extended Social Security to 10
    million more people, and built 810,000 housing
    units for low-income areas

22
Republicans Take the Middle Road
  • Trumans approval rating sank, what with all the
    radical racial and equality ideas
  • In addition, the Korean War was a bust (as we
    saw), and McCarthyism was priming Americans with
    fear
  • President Eisenhower takes the next election
  • Won 55 of the popular vote and majority of the
    electoral college
  • Nixon was his running mate and became VP

23
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24
Walking the Middle Road
  • Eisenhower asks congress to be conservative when
    it comes to money and liberal when it comes to
    human beings
  • He took a middle-of-the-road course avoiding many
    controversial issues
  • But he had a hard time side-stepping civil rights
  • In 1945, the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v.
    Board of Education that public schools must be
    racially integrated this lead to more civil
    rights actions

25
Early Civil Rights Movement
  • A year after the Supreme Court ruled that public
    schools must be racially integrated, a seamstress
    named Rosa Barks refused to give up her seat on a
    bus to a white man
  • Her arrest sparked major news and a boycott on
    the Montgomery, AL bus system

26
The Postwar Boom in America
  • Answer the Essential Question
  • In what ways did the Cold War contribute to
    postwar prosperity in the US?
  • The Story of Us Boom
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