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Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Apostrophes-Quotation Marks-Italics

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Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Apostrophes-Quotation Marks-Italics What Every Clean Cut Freshman Needs to Know Clauses: The Gifts That Keep on Giving An ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Apostrophes-Quotation Marks-Italics


1
Compound SentencesComplex SentencesApostrophes-Q
uotation Marks-Italics
  • What Every Clean Cut Freshman Needs to Know

2
Clauses The Gifts That Keep on Giving
  • An independent clause has a subject and a verb
    and expresses a complete thought.
  • In other words, its a sentence.
  • Santa Claus prefers letters filled with
    independent clauses.
  • A dependent clause has a subject and a verb
    also, but its like an invitation to a party that
    just never happens.
  • It always begins with an introductory word.
  • After Santa got the ungrammatical letter from the
    freshman girl

3
Adjective Clauses or Adverb Clauses White Castle
or McDonalds
  • Adjective clauses help to further describe one of
    the nouns or pronouns in the sentence.
  • They usually begin with one of the relative
    pronouns who, whom, that, which, or whose.
  • The boy who wrote the best letter got everything
    that he asked for, including a new Maserati and a
    lifetime pass to White Castle.
  • Adverb clauses help to further describe a verb,
    adjective, or adverb.
  • They usually begin with one of the subordinating
    conjunctions after, although, as, as long as, as
    though, because, before, even though, if, since,
    so that, than, though, unless, when, whenever,
    where, wherever, whether, while. Whew!
  • The boy got everything that he wanted after he
    wrote a letter to Santa and promised to leave him
    a Big Mac.

4
Sentence Personalities
  • A sentence that includes an adverb and/or an
    adjective clause (or other clause) is called a
    COMPLEX SENTENCE.
  • When Im tired, I get cranky.
  • A sentence that includes at least two independent
    clauses is called a COMPOUND SENTENCE.
  • I sometimes get tired, and then I get cranky.
  • One that includes two independent clauses and a
    dependent clause is called a COMPOUND/COMPLEX
    SENTENCE.
  • When Im tired, I get cranky, and then I know I
    need a nap.

5
After I decide to use one, how should I punctuate
an adverb clause?
  • If the adverb clause begins the sentence, use a
    comma to separate it from the independent clause.
  • When I order a cheeseburger, I always ask for
    extra pickles.
  • You dont need a comma if the adverb clause ends
    the sentence.
  • I always ask for extra pickles when I order a
    cheeseburger.

6
The comma rules for adjective clauses vary,
depending on whether or not the adjective clause
is needed to help identify the noun.
  • Sometimes you need the adjective clause. In this
    case, dont use commas.
  • The boy who is wearing the red hat is my brother.
  • (There are a lot of boys. I need to make sure
    you know which one is my brother.)
  • Sometimes you dont need the clause to clearly
    identify the noun.
  • My brother, who is wearing a red hat, likes extra
    pickles on his cheeseburger.
  • (You already know this sentence is about the
    brother, so the clause is just random
    information.)

7
Conjunctive Adverbs Not a Disease!
  • Conjunctive adverbs and serve as transitions
    between independent clauses. This list includes
    the following, among others accordingly, also,
    besides, consequently, furthermore, however,
    indeed, nevertheless, then, and therefore.
  • Some transitions fall into the same category as
    a result, for example, for instance, in fact, in
    other words, on the other hand
  • Always punctuate these with a semi-colon and a
    comma.
  • My brother prefers MacDonalds cheeseburgers
    however, my sister insists that White Castle
    cheeseburgers are the better choice.

8
How can I fix a run-on sentence/comma splice? I
love ketchup on my fries and my sister loves
mustard.I love ketchup on my fries, my sister
loves mustard.
  • Add end punctuation and a capital letter.
  • I love ketchup on my fries. My sister loves
    mustard.
  • Add a comma before a conjunction.
  • I love ketchup on my fries, but my sister loves
    mustard.
  • Turn one independent clause into a dependent
    clause.
  • Although I love ketchup on my fries, my sister
    loves mustard.
  • Remove the conjunction and insert a semicolon.
  • I love ketchup on my fries my sister loves
    mustard.
  • Add a conjunctive adverb.
  • I love ketchup on my fries however, my sister
    loves mustard.

9
How can I fix the most common type of fragment
the adverb clause?
  • Attach the fragment to the sentence before it or
    after it.
  • I like peanut butter. When its mixed with
    chocolate. It forms a taste explosion.
  • I like peanut butter. When its mixed with
    chocolate, it forms a taste explosion.
  • Drop the subordinating conjunction.
  • I like peanut butter. Its mixed with chocolate
    to form a taste explosion.

10
When should I use italics?(or when to underline
if writing by hand)
  • Books
  • Magazines
  • Newspapers
  • Plays
  • Movies
  • TV/Radio Shows
  • Works of Art
  • Ships/Planes
  • Spacecraft
  • Foreign Words
  • Words as Words
  • Letters
  • Numbers
  • Iran Awakening
  • Sports Illustrated
  • The New York Times
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Precious
  • Thirty Rock
  • The Starry Night
  • Spirit of St. Louis
  • Apollo 13
  • E pluribus unum
  • Is advice the right word to use?
  • How many ms are in your name?
  • Whats the next number after 9?

11
How Should I Use Quotations Marks?Periods and
Commas go on the inside of quotations
marks.Semi-colons and Colons go on the
outside.Question Marks and Exclamation Points
are placed according to the content.
  • Use quotation marks for the titles of
  • Short stories The Lady or the Tiger
  • Poems The Road Less Traveled
  • Songs Candle in the Wind
  • Articles An Interview with Maya Angelou
  • Single TV Episodes Home (from The X Files)
  • Parts of Books Chapter 3, A New Nation
  • Use quotation marks at the beginning and end of a
    direct quotation.
  • My mother always said, Do as I say, and not as I
    do.
  • Once I asked my mother about the times she would
    tell me to do as I do.

12
How Should I Use Apostrophes?These possessive
personal pronouns dont need apostropheshers,
its, his, ours, yours, theirs
  • Use apostrophes to show
  • When a letter, word, or number has been omitted
    -- youre, its, class of 13
  • To show singular possession dogs, hours wait,
    buss ignition
  • To show plural possession of words ending in s
    students reports, two dollars worth
  • To show plural possession in a plural word that
    doesnt end in s womens wages, geeses
    feathers, mens shoes
  • To show possessive of indefinite pronouns
    everyones, anybodys, anothers
  • To show plurals of letters, numbers, and words
    used as words that word has two ss, that
    number has five 7s, she uses too many ands

13
So, why do you need to know all this?
  • You need to know how to punctuate your own
    writing.
  • You need to know how to incorporate simple,
    compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences
    into your writing. This is called sentence
    variety.
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