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Office of Firefighter Training


Title: Slide 1 Author: Daniel Hammerberg Last modified by: Department Of Information Technology Created Date: 4/20/2009 2:41:21 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Office of Firefighter Training

  • Office of Firefighter Training
  • Firefighter I II
  • Laws, Rules, and Standards

  • Demonstrate an understanding of federal laws and
  • Demonstrate an understanding of State of Michigan
    laws and rules
  • Demonstrate an understanding of National Fire
    Protection Association consensus standards

  • All aspects of fire department operations now
    have laws, rules, and standards governing what we

Laws, Rules, Standards Affect
  • Training
  • Apparatus
  • Construction
  • Maintenance
  • Operation
  • Equipment
  • Use
  • Maintenance

Laws, Rules, Standards Affect
  • Fire Fighter Safety
  • Protective Clothing
  • Construction
  • Design
  • Use
  • Emergency Scene Operations
  • Incident Command

Define the Terms
  • Laws
  • Rules
  • Standards

Define the Terms
  • Law
  • A principle prescribed by the governing authority
    imposing a conduct, procedure, or action upon
    people who have an obligation of obedience

Define the Terms
  • Rule
  • A guide or directive issued by an agent or agency
    of the governing authority regulating the
    practice(s) of affected parties

  • Can you give examples of governmental rules that
    affect the fire service?
  • Federal
  • Environmental Protection Agency (Hazardous

  • State
  • DELEG/MIOSHA General Industry Safety Division
  • Firefighter safety relating to tools, apparatus,
    protective clothing, etc Items found in MIOSHA
    part 74 firefighting.
  • DELEG/MIOSHA Occupational Health Division
  • SCBA use and face piece fit testing, 2 in/ 2 out
    guidelines, firefighter medical evaluations,
    Employee Right to Know, etc.
  • MDCH Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Division
  • EMS licensing
  • DELEG/Bureau of Fire Services
  • State Fire Safety Board, fire safety inspections
    of hospitals, adult foster care homes, etc.

Define the Terms
  • Standard
  • A degree or level of requirements, excellence, or
    attainment established by a general consent of
    the members of a recognized and accepted
    non-governmental group or organization

  • NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
  • Most familiar standards agency to the fire
  • Has developed several standards that affect the
    fire service and industry
  • Reviews and revises standards every 5 years

NFPA Standards
  • Two most common standards we will deal with in
    the class are
  • NFPA 1500 Fire Department Occupational Safety
    and Health Program
  • NFPA 1001 Standard for Firefighter Professional

  • Code
  • Simply brings together several requirements
    (laws, rules, standards) which have a common
    factor, into a single document
  • Examples
  • Code of Ordinances
  • Vehicle Code
  • Fire Prevention Code

Reasons for Laws, Rules Standards
  • New requirements are usually made because we fail
    to effectively or safely deal with a particular

Reasons for Laws, Rules Standards
  • Examples
  • NFPA 1500 Fire Department Safety
  • Originally adopted in 1987 because of the fire
    services exceedingly poor record of occupational
    death and injury statistics
  • DELEG/MIOSHA General Industry Safety Health
    Part 74 Fire Fighting Safety Rule
  • First developed and adopted in 1977
  • Michigans fire services first attempt to reduce
    firefighter injuries and deaths

Reasons for Laws, Rules Standards
  • Under Michigan law, there is no legal obligation
    to provide fire protection to the residents of
    cities, villages, or townships
  • Once the community decides to provide fire
    protection ALL of the laws, rules, etc., MUST BE

Act 207 of 1941 as amended
  • Michigan Fire Prevention Code
  • First passed in 1941 and amended many time since
  • Basic State law establishing the duties and
    powers of
  • The State Fire Safety Board
  • The State Fire Marshal
  • The local fire chief/officials

Bureau of Fire Services
  • Conduct plan reviews, construction inspections,
    and periodic inspections of State regulated
  • Certify fire inspectors according to
    qualifications of the Fire Safety Board
  • State Fire Safety Board
  • Make rules enforced by BFS and local inspectors
  • Hear appeals on the enforcement of the rules

State Fire Marshal
  • Has primary enforcement responsibility for Act
    207 as well as
  • Implementing and operating the Fire Incident
    Reporting System
  • Abatement of virtually any dangerous condition
    found to exist within the state
  • May order whatever actions are necessary to
    correct or make the situations safe

Local Fire Chief
  • Act 207 gives the chief or firefighter in uniform
    acting under orders of the chief the authority
    and duty to
  • Investigate dangerous conditions in local
    communities and take necessary steps to protect
    persons and property until the dangerous
    condition is abated
  • Conduct inspections for the discovery of fire

Local Fire Chief
  • Authority and duty, continued
  • Cause fire drills in schools, colleges and
  • Report immediately to the State Fire Marshal any
    hazardous materials incident
  • Make and file NFIRS reports monthly

Personnel Safety and Operations
  • Safety Laws and Rules

OSHA Act of 1970
  • Under this act, OSHA was created within the US
    Department of Labor to accomplish three goals
  • Encourage employers and employees to reduce
    workplace hazards and implement new or improve
    existing safety and health programs
  • Develop mandatory job safety and health rules and
    enforce them effectively
  • Establish training programs to increase the
    number and competence of occupational safety and
    health personnel

OSHA Act of 1970
  • States have the option of enforcing their own
    OSHA programs. State standards must be at
    least as stringent as the federal standards

Michigan OSHA Act of 1974 (Act 154)
  • MIOSHA Enacted in Michigan because the state
    chose to operate its own OSHA program
  • Fire departments MUST comply with the rules
    developed under the authority of Act 154
  • All departments whether paid, part paid, or
    volunteer are subject to the provisions of the
  • All members whether paid, part paid, or volunteer
    are considered employees and are subject to the
    provisions of the law

Michigan OSHA Act of 1974 (Act 154)
  • 5 key elements firefighters need to know
  • Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • Part 433. Personal Protective Equipment

Michigan OSHA Act of 1974 (Act 154)
  • DELEG General Industry Safety Health Part
    74. Fire Fighting (Fire Fighter Safety)
  • Safety rules for fire departments and
    firefighters in emergency and non emergency
  • MIOSHA can and does enforce their rules for fire
  • Employers City, village, township, or fire
    district board through the fire department MUST
    comply with rules developed by DELEG/MIOSHA. The
    employer must provide training for all employees
    and assure that all employees follow the
    provisions of the rules
  • Firefighters, as employees, must by law comply
    with the provisions of the law and are OBLIGATED
    to follow safety rules.

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Applicability
  • Rule 7402.
  • A person who is functioning as a municipal
    firefighter and who is exposed to the hazards of
    an emergency operation shall comply with this

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Duties of employer
  • Rule 7411.
  • Assure that prospective personnel are physically
    fit and have the ability to perform assigned
    emergency operations
  • Assure that job-related equipment and tools are
    maintained free of recognized defects which could
    cause an injury
  • The employer shall prepare and maintain a
    statement or written policy which establishes its
    basic organizational structure and which
    establishes the type, amount, and frequency of
    training to be provided to fire service personnel

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Duties of employee
  • Rule 7412
  • Use personal protective equipment as prescribed
    by this part
  • Report defective equipment, tools, and hazardous
    conditions to a supervisor
  • Not remove safeguards from equipment except when
    necessary to service. The safeguard or
    equivalent shall be replaced before returning the
    equipment to operation
  • Not use equipment and tools unless trained in
    their use and authorized to do so

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Rule 7431
  • An employer shall assure that all emergency
    service personnel use PPE appropriate for the
    exposure involved while performing emergency
  • PPE shall be provided by the employer at no cost
    to the employee and shall comply with the
    requirements of this part
  • PPE that is used by more than 1 employee shall be
    cleaned or sanitized before reassignment
  • PPE shall be inspected after each use

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Personal protective equipment (contd)
  • Employer shall implement procedures for
    inspecting and servicing PPE, particularly
    following fires or other emergency usage. The
    procedures shall comply with the manufacturers
  • Employer shall implement a procedure for
    determining PPE repair or replacement. All
    repairs shall be made in compliance with
    manufacturer's recommendations
  • Respiratory equipment shall be inspected after
    each use. Malfunctioning or damaged components
    or units shall be repaired by the manufacturer or
    a person who is certified by the manufacturer or
    shall be replaced.

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Respiratory protection devices
  • Rule 7436.
  • The employer shall have a written respiratory
    protection program to address the safe used of
    respirators in dangerous atmospheres that may be
    encountered in emergency operations, in
    accordance with Rule 325.60051 and this rule.
  • An employer shall assure that SCBA for use by
    fire service personnel is of the
    positive-pressure type.
  • This doesnt prohibit the use of SCBAs with the
    demand-positive pressure switch when performing
    emergency operations.

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Supervision of emergency operations
  • Rule 7451.
  • Each fire department shall establish and
    implement written procedures for emergency
    operations and shall include the following
  • A requirement that a nationally recognized
    incident management system be implemented at each
  • A requirement that a personnel accountability
    system be implemented at each emergency
  • A statement that the procedures apply to all
    employees who are operating at the emergency

MIOSHA Part 74. Fire Fighting
  • Rule 7451. (1)(Contd)
  • A requirement for initial training and annual
    refresher training in emergency operations and
    the incident management system
  • A requirement that the procedures shall be in
    accordance with the two in/two out rules as
    fount in the provisions of 1910.134(g)(4), which
    was adopted by reference in the occupational
    health standard Part 451. Respiratory
    Protection being R325.60051 et seq. of the
    Michigan Administrative Code
  • A trained employee shall function as the incident
    commander at each emergency

Part 33. Personal Protective Equipment
  • Rule 3301 General Provisions
  • Shall apply to all places of employment in this
    state and includes requirements by the employer
    and use by the employee of PPE and provides
    adequate means, ways, and methods for the proper
    selection and safe use of this equipment

Part 33. Personal Protective Equipment
  • Rule 3310. Employers and employees
  • The employer shall provide to an employee, at no
    expense to the employee, the initial issue of the
    type of PPE which is suitable for the work to be
    performed as required by this standard or any
    general industry safety standard.
  • An employee shall use all of the PPE provided by
    the employer

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • Rule 1 Scope and Application (R325.60051)
  • In the control of occupational diseases caused by
    breathing contaminated air, the primary objective
    shall be to prevent the atmospheric contamination
  • Prevention of atmospheric contamination shall be
    accomplished, as far as feasible, by accepted
    engineering control measures
  • When engineering controls are not feasible, or
    while being instituted, appropriate respirators
    shall be used pursuant to these rules.

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • 1910.134 Respiratory Protection
  • Section (a)(2) Respirators shall be provided by
    the employer when such equipment is necessary to
    protect the employee. Respirators shall be
    applicable and suitable for the intended purpose
  • Section (c) 1. Where respirators are required,
    the employer shall establish and implement a
    written respiratory program with
    worksite-specific procedures
  • Section (d) Selection of respirators requires
    the employer to evaluate the respiratory hazards,
    identify work place and user factors, and base
    selection on these factors

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • Section (e) specifies the minimum requirements
    for medical evaluation that employers must
    implement to determine the employees ability to
    use a respirator
  • Section (f) Fit testing requires that before
    an employee may be required to use any respirator
    with a tight-fitting face piece, the employee
    must be fit tested with the same make, model,
    style, and size of respirator that will be used

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • Section (g) Use of respirators requires
    employers to establish and implement procedures
    for the proper use of respirators
  • (g)(1) Face piece seal protection
  • (g)(1)(i) The employer shall not permit
    respirators with tight fitting face pieces to be
    worn by employees who have
  • (g)(1)(i)(A) Facial hair that comes between the
    sealing surface of the face piece and the face or
    interferes with the valve function or
  • (g)(1)(i)(B) Any condition that interferes with
    the face to face piece seal or valve function

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • (g)(4) The employer shall ensure that
  • (g)(4)(i) At least two employees enter the IDLH
    atmosphere and remain in voice contact with one
    another at all times
  • (g)(4)(ii) At least two employees are located
    outside the IDLH atmosphere, and
  • (g)(4)(iii) All employees engaged in interior
    structural fire fighting use SCBAs

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • Note 1 to paragraph (g). One of the two
    individuals located outside the IDLH atmosphere
    may be assigned an additional role (IC, Safety
    Officer, etc) so long as the individual is able
    to fill the assistance or rescue activities
    without jeopardizing the safety and health of any
    firefighter working at the incident
  • Note 2 to paragraph (g). Nothing in this section
    is meant to preclude firefighters from performing
    emergency rescue activities before an entire team
    is assembled.

Part 451. Respiratory Protection
  • Section (h) Maintenance and care of respirators
    Requires the employers to provide for the
    cleaning and disinfecting, storage, inspection,
    and repair of respirators used by employees
  • Section (k) Training and information Required
    the employer to provide for effective training to
    their employees who are required to used

Respiratory Protection Note
  • Respirators shall not be worn when conditions
    prevent a good face seal. Examples
  • beards, long sideburns, scull cap that projects
    under the face piece, temple pieces on glasses
  • Absence of dentures
  • To assure a proper seal, the fit shall be checked
    each time the wearer puts on the face piece using
    manufacturers fitting instructions

Respiratory Protection Note
  • DELEG/MIOSHA is enforcing the facial hair rule,
  • OFFT will not allow a firefighter to participate
    in FF I or II training or testing if he/she has
    facial hair that can interfere with the face
    piece seal

Additional DELEG/MIOSHA Rules
  • DELEG/MIOSHA General Health Safety Part 90.
    Confined Space Entry
  • MDCH Part 554. Bloodborne Infectious Diseases
    (Rule 325.7001-.7007)
  • DELEG/MIOSHA General Health Safety Part 38.
    Hand Power Tools
  • These rules contain mandates for employer and
    employee actions including training, maintenance,
    equipment, safety precautions, and record keeping.

Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code
  • The basic state law regulating and defining our
    duties and responsibilities as drivers of
    emergency vehicles
  • Key provisions firefighters need to know
  • MCL 257.2 Authorized Emergency Vehicle Defined
  • Sec. 2 a. Vehicles of the fire department, police
    vehicles, ambulances, or privately owned motor
    vehicles of volunteer or paid firefighters if
    authorized by the chief of an organized fire
    department or privately owned motor vehicles of a
    volunteer or paid members of a life support
    agency licensed by the Michigan Department of
    Community Health if authorized by the life
    support agency.

Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code
  • NOTE Any department which authorizes its
    personnel to operate their personal vehicles as
    emergency vehicles should consider the following
  • Sole authority and responsibility for
    authorization now rests with the chief or agency
  • The department or agency should adopt a policy
    regarding the use of lights and siren, specify
    who may use them, under what conditions, and what
    training must be accomplished first. (recommended
    minimum OFFT Driver Training Course)
  • The policy should also include a mandatory
    inspection on a periodic basis by the
    chief/director or his/her designee to make
    certain that the vehicle is properly equipped
    (red light on the roof when in use and a siren)
    and in safe operating condition.

Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code
  • Act 300 grants certain privileges to emergency
    vehicles but imposes additional responsibilities
    on the driver relating to safe operation, covered
    fully in the drivers training course
  • It is recommended all departments require
    personnel to complete the drivers training
    course prior to operating any vehicle, including
    personal vehicles, as emergency vehicles.

Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code
  • A firefighter does not have to carry his/her
    operators license, registration, proof of
    insurance, etc while responding to or returning
    from an alarm
  • A valid operators license is required
  • If operating vehicles over 26,001 pounds, a
    Commercial Driver License OR completion of the
    OFFT Driver Training Class is required.

Act 300 of 1949, Michigan Vehicle Code
  • Michigan motor vehicle and licensing laws are
    quite explicit in terms of identifying
    responsibilities and privileges.
  • Emergency response driving requires constant care
    and vigilance Firefighters remain potentially
    liable if they injure or kill someone while
    operating an emergency vehicle.

Hazardous Materials SARA/HAZWOPER
  • Three primary emergency planning requirements
    regarding hazardous materials
  • Firefighter Right to Know
  • Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response
  • Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA
    Title I III)

Hazardous Materials SARA/HAZWOPER
  • Fire Chiefs responsibility and authority
    regarding hazardous materials in PA 207
  • The fire chief must
  • Develop site specific safety plans for all sites
    within the fire district which use or produce
    hazmat at or above the quantity specified
  • Establish good SOPs for the department
  • Participate with the LEPC developing site
    specific procedures for Title III sites
  • Ensure that all plans are consistent with their
    departments Emergency Operations Plan
  • Retain copies of the survey form for all sites

Hazardous Materials SARA/HAZWOPER
  • Requirements are summarized in DELEG/BFS Bulletin
    09 Fire Department Hazardous Material Emergency
    Planning Responsibilities available at

Hazardous Materials SARA/HAZWOPER
  • DELEG/MIOSHA General Industry Safety Health
    issued Rule 325.52133, Emergency Response
    Training specifying five levels of hazardous
    materials training and competencies for
  • First responder awareness (FRA)
  • First responder operations (FRO)
  • Hazardous materials technician
  • Hazardous materials specialist
  • Incident command (IC)

Hazardous Materials SARA/HAZWOPER
  • FRA is taught in conjunction with Firefighter I
  • FRO is taught in conjunction with Firefighter II
  • Rule 325.52133 specifies that it is the employer
    (usually the fire chief) that certifies
    competency of firefighters at the FRA, FRO,
    Technician, and IC levels

Hazardous Materials SARA/HAZWOPER
  • The fire chief and municipal governing body
    determine the response level of the department
  • DELEG/MIOSHA rules require firefighters, EMS, and
    law enforcement personnel to be trained to the
    minimum of the Awareness level
  • DELEG/MIOSHA strongly recommends firefighters be
    trained to the Operations level
  • Refresher training on an ANNUAL basis is required
    to the level selected by the governing body and
    the fire chief

Emergency Medical Law
  • Estimated that 50 of organized fire departments
    in Michigan provide some level of emergency
    medical response
  • Act 368 Emergency Medical Law, as amended by
    PA 179 of 1990
  • Is specific in establishing training for EMS
  • Levels
  • MFR, Medical First Responder
  • EMT, Emergency Medical Technician
  • EMT-S, EMT Specialist
  • EMT-P, EMT Paramedic
  • I/C, Instructor/Coordinator

Firefighter Training Act 291 of 1966
  • MFFTC (Michigan Fire Fighters Training Council)
    was created within DELEG/Bureau of Fire Services
    by the passage of Act 291 of 1966, known as the
    Fire Fighters Training Council Act
  • Council consists of seven members representing
  • Michigan Fire Chiefs Association (2)
  • Michigan State Firemens Association (1)
  • Michigan State Firefighters Union (1)
  • Michigan Fire Instructors Association (1)
  • Michigan Twps Assn Michigan Municipal League
  • State Fire Marshal (ex-officio member)

Firefighter Training Council Act Act 291 of 1966
  • MFFTC was created in DELEG/BFS for administrative
  • By law, only Council may direct program
    administration and budget expenditures
  • Act requires mandatory TESTING for recruit
    firefighters hired on or before October 1, 1988
  • Must pass a combination written and practical
    skills examination to become a firefighter

Firefighter Training Council Act Act 291 of 1966
  • MFFTC/OFFT is responsible for
  • Establishing qualifications for and certifying
  • Establishing courses of study
  • Evaluating instructors and schools
  • Developing and administering FF I II
  • Establishing regional training centers
  • Registering fire department training officers
  • Developing and publishing advisory recruitment

Firefighter Training Council Act Act 291 of 1966
  • Act 291 adopts by reference the NFPA 1001
    standard as the basis for firefighter recruit
  • Volunteer or part paid firefighters within 24
    months of hire must pass the Firefighter I
    written and practical skills exam as adopted by
    the OFFT
  • Full time firefighters within 12 months of hire
    must pass the Firefighter I II written and
    practical skills exams as adopted by the OFFT

  • Our profession is becoming highly regulated
  • The requirements of our job are based on
    demonstrated needs and should be professional
    standards to aspire to
  • Firefighters need to understand and comply with
    the laws, rules, and standards that affect the
    fire service
  • The information in this unit is designed to
    reduce and control threats to our well being