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Title: RTI: The Essentials for Elementary School Administrators Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org


1
RTI The Essentials for Elementary School
AdministratorsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral
.org
2
RTI The Essentials Agenda
3
Keynote PowerPoints and Related Resources
Available at
  • http//www.jimwrightonline.com/AWSA.php

4
The quality of a school as a learning community
can be measured by how effectively it addresses
the needs of struggling students.--Wright
(2005)
Source Wright, J. (2005, Summer). Five
interventions that work. NAESP Leadership
Compass, 2(4) pp.1,6.
5
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
6
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

7
Essential Elements of RTI (Fairbanks, Sugai,
Guardino, Lathrop, 2007)
  1. A continuum of evidence-based services available
    to all students" that range from universal to
    highly individualized intensive
  2. Decision points to determine if students are
    performing significantly below the level of their
    peers in academic and social behavior domains"
  3. Ongoing monitoring of student progress"
  4. Employment of more intensive or different
    interventions when students do not improve in
    response" to lesser interventions
  5. Evaluation for special education services if
    students do not respond to intervention
    instruction"

Source Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, S.,
Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention
Examining classroom behavior support in second
grade. Exceptional Children, 73, p. 289.
8
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
9
RTI Intervention Key Concepts
10
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Core Instruction. Those instructional strategies
    that are used routinely with all students in a
    general-education setting are considered core
    instruction. High-quality instruction is
    essential and forms the foundation of RTI
    academic support. NOTE While it is important to
    verify that good core instructional practices are
    in place for a struggling student, those routine
    practices do not count as individual student
    interventions.

11
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Intervention. An academic intervention is a
    strategy used to teach a new skill, build fluency
    in a skill, or encourage a child to apply an
    existing skill to new situations or settings. An
    intervention can be thought of as a set of
    actions that, when taken, have demonstrated
    ability to change a fixed educational trajectory
    (Methe Riley-Tillman, 2008 p. 37).

12
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Accommodation. An accommodation is intended to
    help the student to fully access and participate
    in the general-education curriculum without
    changing the instructional content and without
    reducing the students rate of learning (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005). An accommodation is
    intended to remove barriers to learning while
    still expecting that students will master the
    same instructional content as their typical
    peers.
  • Accommodation example 1 Students are allowed to
    supplement silent reading of a novel by listening
    to the book on tape.
  • Accommodation example 2 For unmotivated
    students, the instructor breaks larger
    assignments into smaller chunks and providing
    students with performance feedback and praise for
    each completed chunk of assigned work (Skinner,
    Pappas Davis, 2005).

13
Teaching is giving it isnt taking away.
(Howell, Hosp Kurns, 2008 p. 356).


Source Howell, K. W., Hosp, J. L., Kurns, S.
(2008). Best practices in curriculum-based
evaluation. In A. Thomas J. Grimes (Eds.), Best
practices in school psychology V (pp.349-362).
Bethesda, MD National Association of School
Psychologists..
14
Core Instruction, Interventions, Accommodations
Modifications Sorting Them Out
  • Modification. A modification changes the
    expectations of what a student is expected to
    know or dotypically by lowering the academic
    standards against which the student is to be
    evaluated. Examples of modifications
  • Giving a student five math computation problems
    for practice instead of the 20 problems assigned
    to the rest of the class
  • Letting the student consult course notes during a
    test when peers are not permitted to do so

15
Sample RTI Interventions for Academics Behavior
16
Savvy Teachers Guide Reading Interventions That
Work (Wright, 2000)
17
Big Ideas in Beginning Reading
  • Phonemic Awareness The ability to hear and
    manipulate sounds in words.
  • Alphabetic Principle The ability to associate
    sounds with letters and use these sounds to form
    words.
  • Fluency with Text The effortless, automatic
    ability to read words in connected text.
  • Vocabulary The ability to understand (receptive)
    and use (expressive) words to acquire and convey
    meaning.
  • Comprehension The complex cognitive process
    involving the intentional interaction between
    reader and text to convey meaning.

Source Big ideas in beginning reading.
University of Oregon. Retrieved September 23,
2007, from http//reading.uoregon.edu/index.php
18
Interventions forIncreasing Reading Fluency
  • Assisted Reading Practice
  • Listening Passage Preview (ListeningWhile
    Reading)
  • Paired Reading
  • Repeated Reading

19
  • The student reads aloud in tandem with an
    accomplished reader. At a student signal, the
    helping reader stops reading, while the student
    continues on. When the student commits a reading
    error, the helping reader resumes reading in
    tandem.

Paired Reading
20
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21
  • Students periodically check their understanding
    of sentences, paragraphs, and pages of text as
    they read. When students encounter problems with
    vocabulary or comprehension, they use a checklist
    to apply simple strategies to solve those reading
    difficulties.

Click or Clunk Self-Check
22
Click or Clunk Check Sheet
23
HELPS Program Reading Fluencywww.helpsprogram.or
g
  • HELPS (Helping Early Literacy with Practice
    Strategies) is a free tutoring program that
    targets student reading fluency skills. Developed
    by Dr. John Begeny of North Carolina State
    University, the program is an evidence-based
    intervention package that includes
  • adult modeling of fluent reading,
  • repeated reading of passages by the student,
  • phrase-drill error correction,
  • verbal cueing and retell check to encourage
    student reading comprehension,
  • reward procedures to engage and encourage the
    student reader.

24
Good Behavior Game(Barrish, Saunders, Wold,
1969)
25
Sample Classroom Management Strategy Good
Behavior Game (Barrish, Saunders, Wold, 1969)
  • The Good Behavior Game is a whole-class
    intervention to improve student attending and
    academic engagement. It is best used during
    structured class time for example, whole-group
    instruction or periods of independent
    seatworkDescription The class is divided into
    two or more student teams. The teacher defines a
    small set of 2 to 3 negative behaviors. When a
    student shows a problem behavior, the teacher
    assigns a negative behavior point to that
    students team. At the end of the Game time
    period, any team whose number of points falls
    below a cut-off set by the teacher earns a
    daily reward or privilege.
  • Guidelines for using this intervention The Game
    is ideal to use with the entire class during
    academic study or lecture periods to keep
    students academically engaged The Game is not
    suitable for less-structured activities such as
    cooperative learning groups, where students are
    expected to interact with each other as part of
    the work assignment.

26
Good Behavior Game Steps
  • The instructor decides when to schedule the Game.
    (NOTE Generally, the Good Behavior Game should
    be used for no more than 45 to 60 minutes per day
    to maintain its effectiveness.)
  • The instructor defines the 2-3 negative behaviors
    that will be scored during the Game. Most
    teachers use these 3 categories
  • Talking Out The student talks, calls out, or
    otherwise verbalizes without teacher permission.
  • Out of Seat The students posterior is not on
    the seat.
  • Disruptive Behavior The student engages in any
    other behavior that the instructor finds
    distracting or problematic.

27
Good Behavior Game Steps
  1. The instructor selects a daily reward to be
    awarded to each member of successful student
    teams. (HINT Try to select rewards that are
    inexpensive or free. For example, student winners
    might be given a coupon permitting them to skip
    one homework item that night.)
  2. The instructor divides the class into 2 or more
    teams.
  3. The instructor selects a daily cut-off level that
    represents the maximum number of points that a
    team is allowed (e.g., 5 points).

28
Good Behavior Game Steps
  • When the Game is being played, the instructor
    teaches in the usual manner. Whenever the
    instructor observes student misbehavior during
    the lesson, the instructor silently assigns a
    point to that students team (e.g., as a tally
    mark on the board) and continues to teach.
  • When the Game period is over, the teacher tallies
    each teams points. Here are the rules for
    deciding the winner(s) of the Game
  • Any team whose point total is at or below the
    pre-determined cut-off earns the daily reward.
    (NOTE This means that more than one team can
    win!)
  • If one teams point total is above the cut-off
    level, that team does not earn a reward.
  • If ALL teams have point totals that EXCEED the
    cut-off level for that day, only the team with
    the LOWEST number of points wins.

29
Good Behavior Game Troubleshooting
  • Here are some tips for using the Good Behavior
    Game
  • Avoid the temptation to overuse the Game. Limit
    its use to no more than 45 minutes to an hour per
    day.
  • If a student engages in repeated bad behavior to
    sabotage a team and cause it to lose, you can
    create an additional team of one that has only
    one member--the misbehaving student. This student
    can still participate in the Game but is no
    longer able to spoil the Game for peers!
  • If the Game appears to be losing effectiveness,
    check to be sure it is being implemented with
    care and that you are
  • Assigning points consistently when you observe
    misbehavior.
  • Not allowing yourself to be pulled into arguments
    with students when you assign points for
    misbehavior.
  • Reliably giving rewards to Game winners.
  • Not overusing the Game.

30
Game Over
Answer Both teams won the Game, as both teams
point totals fell BELOW the cut-off of 5 points.
Question Which team won this Game?
31
Defensive Behavior Management The Power of
Teacher PreparationJim Wrightwww.interventionce
ntral.org
32
Defensive Management A Method to Avoid Power
Struggles
  • Defensive management (Fields, 2004) is a
    teacher-friendly six-step approach to avert
    student-teacher power struggles that emphasizes
    providing proactive instructional support to the
    student, elimination of behavioral triggers in
    the classroom setting, relationship-building,
    strategic application of defusing techniques when
    needed, and use of a reconnection conference
    after behavioral incidents to promote student
    reflection and positive behavior change.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
33
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Understanding the Problem and Using Proactive
    Strategies. The teacher collects
    information--through direct observation and
    perhaps other means--about specific instances of
    student problem behavior and the instructional
    components and other factors surrounding them.
    The teacher analyzes this information to discover
    specific trigger events that seem to set off
    the problem behavior(s) (e.g., lack of skills
    failure to understand directions).The
    instructor then adjusts instruction to provide
    appropriate student support (e.g., providing the
    student with additional instruction in a skill
    repeating directions and writing them on the
    board).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
34
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions.
    Early in each class session, the teacher has at
    least one positive verbal interaction with the
    student. Throughout the class period, the teacher
    continues to interact in positive ways with the
    student (e.g., brief conversation, smile, thumbs
    up, praise comment after a student remark in
    large-group discussion, etc.). In each
    interaction, the teacher adopts a genuinely
    accepting, polite, respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
35
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Scanning for Warning Indicators. During the class
    session, the teacher monitors the target
    students behavior for any behavioral indicators
    suggesting that the student is becoming
    frustrated or angry. Examples of behaviors that
    precede non-compliance or open defiance may
    include stopping work muttering or complaining
    becoming argumentative interrupting others
    leaving his or her seat throwing objects, etc.).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
36
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Exercising Emotional Restraint. Whenever the
    student begins to display problematic behaviors,
    the teacher makes an active effort to remain
    calm. To actively monitor his or her emotional
    state, the teacher tracks physiological cues such
    as increased muscle tension and heart rate, as
    well as fear, annoyance, anger, or other negative
    emotions. The teacher also adopts calming or
    relaxation strategies that work for him or her in
    the face of provocative student behavior, such as
    taking a deep breath or counting to 10 before
    responding.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
37
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Using Defusing Tactics. If the student begins to
    escalate to non-compliant, defiant, or
    confrontational behavior (e.g., arguing,
    threatening, other intentional verbal
    interruptions), the teacher draws from a range of
    possible descalating strategies to defuse the
    situation. Such strategies can include private
    conversation with the student while maintaining a
    calm voice, open-ended questions, paraphrasing
    the students concerns, acknowledging the
    students emotions, etc.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
38
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Reconnecting with The Student. Soon after any
    in-class incident of student non-compliance,
    defiance, or confrontation, the teacher makes a
    point to meet with the student to discuss the
    behavioral incident, identify the triggers in the
    classroom environment that led to the problem,
    and brainstorm with the student to create a
    written plan to prevent the reoccurrence of such
    an incident. Throughout this conference, the
    teacher maintains a supportive, positive, polite,
    and respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
39
RTI Assessment
40
Educational Decisions and Corresponding Types of
Assessment
  • SCREENING/BENCHMARKING DECISIONS Tier 1 Brief
    screenings to quickly indicate whether students
    in the general-education population are
    academically proficient or at risk.
  • PROGRESS-MONITORING DECISIONS At Tiers 1, 2, and
    3, ongoing formative assessments to judge
    whether students on intervention are making
    adequate progress.
  • INSTRUCTIONAL/DIAGNOSTIC DECISIONS At any Tier,
    detailed assessment to map out specific academic
    deficits , discover the root cause(s) of a
    students academic problem.
  • OUTCOME DECISIONS Summative assessment (e.g.,
    state tests) to evaluate the effectiveness of a
    program.

Source Hosp, M. K., Hosp, J. L., Howell, K. W.
(2007). The ABCs of CBM A practical guide to
curriculum-based measurement. New York Guilford
Press.
41
Clearinghouse for RTI Screening and
Progress-Monitoring Tools
  • The National Center on RTI (www.rti4success.org)
    maintains pages rating the technical adequacy of
    RTI screening and progress-monitoring tools.

42
A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a
single step.Lao Tzu, Chinese Taoist (600 BC-531
BC)


43
Helping Teachers to Become RTI First Responders
at Tier 1
44
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
45
RTI Teacher Reluctance
  • The willingness of teachers to implement
    interventions is essential in any school to the
    success of the RTI model. Yet general-education
    teachers may not always see themselves as
    interventionists and indeed may even resist the
    expectation that they will provide individualized
    interventions as a routine part of their
    classroom practice (Walker, 2004).
  • It should be remembered, however, that teachers
    reluctance to accept elements of RTI may be based
    on very good reasons. Here are some common
    reasons that teachers might be reluctant to
    accept their role as RTI intervention first
    responders

46
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
  • Lack of Skills. Teachers lack the skills
    necessary to successfully implement academic or
    behavioral interventions in their content-area
    classrooms (Fisher, 2007 Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Not My Job. Teachers define their job as
    providing content-area instruction. They do not
    believe that providing classwide or individual
    academic and behavioral interventions falls
    within their job description (Kamil et al., 2008).

47
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions(Cont.)
  • No Time. Teachers do not believe that they have
    sufficient time available in classroom
    instruction to implement academic or behavioral
    interventions (Kamil et al., 2008 Walker,
    2004).
  • No Payoff. Teachers lack confidence that there
    will be an adequate instructional pay-off if they
    put classwide or individual academic or
    behavioral interventions into place in their
    content-area classroom (Kamil et al., 2008).

48
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • Loss of Classroom Control. Teachers worry that if
    they depart from their standard instructional
    practices to adopt new classwide or individual
    academic or behavior intervention strategies,
    they may lose behavioral control of the classroom
    (Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Undeserving Students. Teachers are unwilling to
    invest the required effort to provide academic or
    behavioral interventions for unmotivated students
    (Walker, 2004) because they would rather put that
    time into providing additional attention to
    well-behaved, motivated students who are more
    deserving.

49
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • The Magic of Special Education. Content-area
    teachers regard special education services as
    magic (Martens, 1993). According to this view,
    interventions provided to struggling students in
    the general-education classroom alone will be
    inadequate, and only special education services
    have the power to truly benefit those students.

50
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

51
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6
Steps (Cont.)
  • Teacher Responsibility
  • The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  • The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.

Required Supports Training is needed in how to
clearly define academic and behavioral problems
understand common underlying reasons for student
problems. Questions When will this training be
provided? Who will provide the training?
52
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6
Steps (Cont.)
  • Teacher Responsibility
  • The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.

Required Supports An intervention menu is
developed listing research-based strategies to
address the most common academic and behavioral
concerns. Questions How will the intervention
menu be developed? How will the school regularly
update the menu?
53
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6
Steps (Cont.)
  • Teacher Responsibility
  • The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.

Required Supports The school must adopt a
standard form for a teacher to use in documenting
interventions. Questions Who will create the
documentation form? How will the school ensure
that the same standard documentation occurs in
all classrooms?
54
(No Transcript)
55
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6
Steps (Cont.)
  • Teacher Responsibility
  • The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.

Required Supports The school should identify a
range of acceptable methods that teachers can use
to monitor student response to classroom
interventions. Questions Who will identify the
range of classroom monitoring methods? Who will
train teachers in their use?
56
  • Sample Classroom Progress-Monitoring Methods
  • Existing data
  • Global skills checklist (e.g., study skills)
  • Behavioral frequency count/behavior rate
  • Rating scales (e.g., Daily Behavior Report Card)
  • Academic skills Cumulative mastery log
  • Work products
  • Behavior log (for low-frequency behaviors)
  • Curriculum-based measurement

57
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6
Steps (Cont.)
  • Teacher Responsibility
  • The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

Required Supports The school must develop
decision rules that dictate when a teacher
should seek additional RTI assistance for a
student. Questions Who has the authority to
develop uniform RTI decision rules? How will
those decision rules be shared with teachers?
58
(No Transcript)
59
Group Activity Offer Advice to a Troubled
Classroom
  • At your tables
  • View the video clip of the teachers interaction
    with Ryan in the middle school classroom
  • Use the six-step defensive behavior management
    framework to come up with ideas to recommend to
    this teacher to help her to manage Ryans
    behavior more effectively.

60
RTI Best Practicesin MathematicsInterventions
Jim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
61
National Mathematics Advisory Panel Report13
March 2008
62
Math Advisory Panel Report athttp//www.ed.gov/
mathpanel
63
2008 National Math Advisory Panel Report
Recommendations
  • The areas to be studied in mathematics from
    pre-kindergarten through eighth grade should be
    streamlined and a well-defined set of the most
    important topics should be emphasized in the
    early grades. Any approach that revisits topics
    year after year without bringing them to closure
    should be avoided.
  • Proficiency with whole numbers, fractions, and
    certain aspects of geometry and measurement are
    the foundations for algebra. Of these, knowledge
    of fractions is the most important foundational
    skill not developed among American students.
  • Conceptual understanding, computational and
    procedural fluency, and problem solving skills
    are equally important and mutually reinforce each
    other. Debates regarding the relative importance
    of each of these components of mathematics are
    misguided.
  • Students should develop immediate recall of
    arithmetic facts to free the working memory for
    solving more complex problems.

Source National Math Panel Fact Sheet. (March
2008). Retrieved on March 14, 2008, from
http//www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/rep
ort/final-factsheet.html
64
Math Intervention Tier I or II Elementary
Secondary Self-Administered Arithmetic
Combination Drills With Performance
Self-Monitoring Incentives
  1. The student is given a math computation worksheet
    of a specific problem type, along with an answer
    key Academic Opportunity to Respond.
  2. The student consults his or her performance chart
    and notes previous performance. The student is
    encouraged to try to beat his or her most
    recent score.
  3. The student is given a pre-selected amount of
    time (e.g., 5 minutes) to complete as many
    problems as possible. The student sets a timer
    and works on the computation sheet until the
    timer rings. Active Student Responding
  4. The student checks his or her work, giving credit
    for each correct digit (digit of correct value
    appearing in the correct place-position in the
    answer). Performance Feedback
  5. The student records the days score of TOTAL
    number of correct digits on his or her personal
    performance chart.
  6. The student receives praise or a reward if he or
    she exceeds the most recently posted number of
    correct digits.

Application of Learn Unit framework from
Heward, W.L. (1996). Three low-tech strategies
for increasing the frequency of active student
response during group instruction. In R. Gardner,
D. M.S ainato, J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, W. L.
Heward, J. W. Eshleman, T. A. Grossi (Eds.),
Behavior analysis in education Focus on
measurably superior instruction (pp.283-320).
Pacific Grove, CABrooks/Cole.
65
Self-Administered Arithmetic Combination Drills
66
Developing Student Metacognitive Abilities
67
Importance of Metacognitive Strategy Use
  • Metacognitive processes focus on self-awareness
    of cognitive knowledge that is presumed to be
    necessary for effective problem solving, and they
    direct and regulate cognitive processes and
    strategies during problem solvingThat is,
    successful problem solvers, consciously or
    unconsciously (depending on task demands), use
    self-instruction, self-questioning, and
    self-monitoring to gain access to strategic
    knowledge, guide execution of strategies, and
    regulate use of strategies and problem-solving
    performance. p. 231

Source Montague, M. (1992). The effects of
cognitive and metacognitive strategy instruction
on the mathematical problem solving of middle
school students with learning disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 230-248.
68
Combining Cognitive Metacognitive Strategies to
Assist Students With Mathematical Problem Solving
p. 44
  • Solving an advanced math problem independently
    requires the coordination of a number of complex
    skills. The following strategies combine both
    cognitive and metacognitive elements (Montague,
    1992 Montague Dietz, 2009). First, the student
    is taught a 7-step process for attacking a math
    word problem (cognitive strategy). Second, the
    instructor trains the student to use a three-part
    self-coaching routine for each of the seven
    problem-solving steps (metacognitive strategy).

69
Cognitive Portion of Combined Problem Solving
Approach
  • In the cognitive part of this multi-strategy
    intervention, the student learns an explicit
    series of steps to analyze and solve a math
    problem. Those steps include
  • Reading the problem. The student reads the
    problem carefully, noting and attempting to clear
    up any areas of uncertainly or confusion (e.g.,
    unknown vocabulary terms).
  • Paraphrasing the problem. The student restates
    the problem in his or her own words.
  • Drawing the problem. The student creates a
    drawing of the problem, creating a visual
    representation of the word problem.
  • Creating a plan to solve the problem. The student
    decides on the best way to solve the problem and
    develops a plan to do so.
  • Predicting/Estimating the answer. The student
    estimates or predicts what the answer to the
    problem will be. The student may compute a quick
    approximation of the answer, using rounding or
    other shortcuts.
  • Computing the answer. The student follows the
    plan developed earlier to compute the answer to
    the problem.
  • Checking the answer. The student methodically
    checks the calculations for each step of the
    problem. The student also compares the actual
    answer to the estimated answer calculated in a
    previous step to ensure that there is general
    agreement between the two values.

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Metacognitive Portion of Combined Problem Solving
Approach
  • The metacognitive component of the intervention
    is a three-part routine that follows a sequence
    of Say, Ask, Check. For each of the 7
    problem-solving steps reviewed above
  • The student first self-instructs by stating, or
    saying, the purpose of the step (Say).
  • The student next self-questions by asking what
    he or she intends to do to complete the step
    (Ask).
  • The student concludes the step by
    self-monitoring, or checking, the successful
    completion of the step (Check).

71
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
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Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
73
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
74
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
75
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
76
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
77
Combined Cognitive Metacognitive Elements of
Strategy
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