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AN EMPIRE OF STATES OR A COLONIAL POWER?

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Title: Slide 1 Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: stefaniakd Created Date: 2/25/2005 2:45:16 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show Company – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AN EMPIRE OF STATES OR A COLONIAL POWER?


1
AN EMPIRE OF STATES OR A COLONIAL POWER?
2
Why did America join the colonial empire club at
the end of the 19c?
3
(No Transcript)
4
1. Commercial/Business Interests
U. S. Foreign Investments 1869-1908
5
1. Commercial/Business Interests
American Foreign Trade 1870-1914
6
2. Military/Strategic Interests
Alfred T. Mahan ? The Influence of Sea Power on
History 1660-1783
7
Alfred Thayer Mahan
  • Thesis Control of the sea
  • was key to world
  • dominance.
  • Build large navy
  • Build defensive bases
  • i.e. Hawaii, etc
  • Build refueling stations
  • Build a canal linking the
  • Atlantic and Pacific

1898 US fifth most powerful navy, 1900 third (All
steel, modern, coal powered.
8
3. Social Darwinist Thinking
The White Mans Burden
The Hierarchy of Race
9
Teddy Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge
  • Natural Law Thesis World belongs to the strong
    and fit (i.e. the US).
  • The US must become colonial imperialist to
    survive competition between modern states.

Young T.R.
Lodge
10
4. Religious/Missionary Interests
American Missionaries in China, 1905
11
Josiah Strong (Minister)
  • Advocates the superiority of Anglo-Saxon
    civilization.
  • Thesis Spread religion, civilization, and
    democratic values to backward peoples

12
5. Closing the American Frontier
13
Senator Albert Beveridge
  • The US is part of the movement of a superior race
    ordained by God.
  • Extension of Manifest Destiny

14
Samoan Crisis
  • US and German navies nearly engage in battles in
    1889 over the Samoan Islands.
  • Resolved 1900 Treaty w/ Germany and G.B.
  • Provisions US gets 76 square miles including
    Pago Pago. Germany gets the two largest islands.
    Britain given other Pacific territories in
    compensation.

15
Venezuela
16
Boundary Dispute with Britain
  • Dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela
    ignites when gold is discovered.
  • Pres. Cleveland invokes Monroe Doctrine
  • Britain denies its legality and refuses
    arbitration.
  • Cleveland wants experts to determine the
    boundary. If Britain refuses the WAR!.
  • Britain is busy with the Boer War, Canada
    vulnerable and agrees even with naval superiority
    of 32 to 5 in battleships.
  • Results
  • US prestige enhanced
  • Latin America thankful
  • Britain courts US help due to continental threats
    (France and Germany)

17
Japan
18
(No Transcript)
19
Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan 1853
The Japanese View of Commodore Perry
20
Treaty of Kanagawa 1854
21
Gentlemans Agreement 1908
  • A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports
    to laborers entering the U.S.
  • Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude
    Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by
    other countries.
  • The U.S. government got the school board of San
    Francisco to rescind their order to segregate
    Asians in separate schools.
  • 1908 ? Root-Takahira Agreement.

22
Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1912
  • Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr.
  • Non-European powers, like Japan, would
    be excluded from owning territory in the
    Western Hemisphere.

23
Alaska
24
(No Transcript)
25
Sewards Folly 1867
7.2 million
26
Sewards Icebox 1867
27
Hawaii "Crossroads of the Pacific"
28
(No Transcript)
29
U. S. Missionaries in Hawaii
Imiola Church first built in the late 1820s
30
U. S. View of Hawaiians
Hawaii becomes a U. S. Protectorate in 1849
by virtue of economic treaties.
31
Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii for the Hawaiians!
32
U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii
  • 1875 Reciprocity Treaty
  • 1890 McKinley Tariff
  • 1893 American businessmen backed an uprising
    against Queen Liliuokalani.
  • Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of
    Hawaii in 1894.

33
To The Victor Belongs the Spoils
Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898
34
Cuba
35
(No Transcript)
36
The Imperialist Taylor
37
Spanish Misrule in Cuba
38
Valeriano Weylers Reconcentration Policy
39
Yellow Journalism Jingoism
Joseph Pulitzer
Hearst to Frederick Remington You furnish
the pictures, and Ill furnish the war!
William Randolph Hearst
40
De Lôme Letter
  • Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S.
  • Criticized President McKinley as weak and
    a bidder for the admiration of the crowd,
    besides being a would-be politician who tries to
    leave a door open behind himself while keeping on
    good terms with the jingoes of his party.

41
Theodore Roosevelt
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley
    administration.
  • Imperialist and American nationalist.
  • Criticized President McKinley as having the
    backbone of a chocolate éclair!
  • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.

42
The Rough Riders
43
Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!
Funeral for Maine victims in Havana
44
The Spanish-American War (1898) That Splendid
Little War
45
(No Transcript)
46
The Philippines
47
(No Transcript)
48
The Spanish-American War (1898) That Splendid
Little War
49
Dewey Captures Manila!
50
Is He To Be a Despot?
51
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Leader of the Filipino Uprising.
  • July 4, 1946 Philippine independence

52
William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the
Philippines
Great administrator.
53
Our Sphere of Influence
54
(No Transcript)
55
The Treaty of Paris 1898
  • Cuba was freed from Spanish rule.
  • Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam.
  • The U. S. paid Spain 20 mil. for
    the Philippines.
  • The U. S. becomes an imperial power!

56
The American Anti-Imperialist
League
  • Founded in 1899.
  • Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, William James, and
    William Jennings Bryan among the leaders.
  • Campaigned against the annexation of
    the Philippines and other acts of imperialism.

Imperialism violates the principal of consent of
the governed!!!
57
Cuban Independence?
Senator Orville Platt
Platt Amendment (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter
into any agreements with foreign powers that
would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S.
could intervene in Cuban affairs if
necessary to maintain an efficient, independent
govt. 3. Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the
U.S. for naval and coaling station. 4. Cuba
must not build up an excessive public debt.
58
DILEMNA--Did U. S. citizenship follow the flag??
59
Puerto Rico
60
Puerto Rico 1898
  • 1900 - Foraker Act.
  • 1901-1903 ? the Insular Cases.
  • 1917 Jones Act.

61
Panama
62
Panama The Kings Crown
  • 1850 ? Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
  • 1901 ? Hay-Paunceforte Treaty.
  • Philippe Bunau-Varilla, agent provacateur.
  • Dr. Walter Reed.
  • Colonel W. Goethals.
  • 1903 ? Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty.

63
Panama Canal
TR in Panama (Construction begins in 1904)
64
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe
Doctrine 1905
Chronic wrongdoing may in America, as elsewhere,
ultimately require intervention by some civilized
nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the
adherence of the United States to the Monroe
Doctrine may force the United States, however
reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing
or impotence, to the exercise of an international
police power .
65
Speak Softly, But Carry a Big Stick!
66
China
67
Stereotypes of the Chinese
Immigrant
Oriental Chinese Exclusion Act, 1887
68
The Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • The Peaceful Harmonious Fists.
  • 55 Days at Peking.

69
The Open Door Policy
70
(No Transcript)
71
The Open Door Policy
  • Secretary John Hay.
  • Give all nations equal access to trade in China.
  • Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by
    any one foreign power.

72
America's New Role
73
The Cares of a Growing Family
74
Constable of the World
75
Treaty of Portsmouth 1905
Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy
76
The Great White Fleet 1907
Technologically Obsolete by the time it returned
to the US!
77
Tafts Dollar Diplomacy
  • Improve financial opportunities for American
    businesses.
  • Use private capital to further U. S.
    interests overseas.
  • Therefore, the U.S. should create stability and
    order abroad that would best promote Americas
    commercial interests.

78
Mexico
79
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
  • Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and
    puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.
  • Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano
    Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Hueta.
  • The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz
    and Huerta fled the country.
  • Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.

80
The Mexican Revolution 1910s
Emiliano Zapata
Pancho Villa
Venustiano Carranza
Porfirio Diaz
Francisco I Madero
81
Wilsons Moral Diplomacy
  • The U. S. should be the conscience of the world.
  • Spread democracy.
  • Promote peace.
  • Condemn colonialism.

82
Searching for Banditos
General John J. Pershing with Pancho Villa in
1914.
83
U. S. Global Investments Investments in Latin
America, 1914
84
U. S. Interventions in Latin America 1898-1920s
85
One of the Boys?
86
America as a Pacific Power
87
What the U. S. Has Fought For
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