RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6ecec0-MDM1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

Description:

relationship between secondary school teachers occupational commitment and organizational climate professor dr. zaidatol akmaliah lope pihie dr. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:77
Avg rating:3.0/5.0

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE


1
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
  • PROFESSOR DR. ZAIDATOL AKMALIAH LOPE PIHIE
  • DR. ALI KHAMIS ALI
  • PROFESSOR DR. ZAKARIA KASA
  • FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL STUDIES
  • UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

2
ABSTRACT
  • The research was an attempt to investigate
    the relationship between teachers perceptions of
    organizational climate and occupational
    commitment. The results revealed that supportive
    principal behavior positively and significantly
    correlated with each dimension of occupational
    commitment. In relation to directive principal
    behavior, the results showed that no significant
    relationships existed between teachers
    perceptions of directive principal behavior and
    occupational commitment. Engaged teacher behavior
    correlated positively and significantly with all
    dimensions of occupational commitment. Findings
    also indicated that frustrated teacher behavior
    correlates negatively but significant with
    occupational commitment. The paper will discuss
    the implication of the findings for improving
    principals managerial behavior and also to
    discuss strategies to improve teachers
    commitment at the work place.

3
SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
The school organizational climate has become an
important perspective for analyzing the general
nature of work environment, school
characteristics, and various relationships of
school practices and behaviors. Studies of
organizational climate were initially used as a
general notion to express the enduring quality of
a school organizational life (Hoy, Tarter
Kottkamp, 1991).
4
SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
- Hoy Miskel (1987) defined school climate as
the relatively enduring quality of the school
environment that is experienced by participants,
affects their behavior, and is based on their
collective perception on behavior in school. -
Hoy Miskel (1987) defined school climate as the
relatively enduring quality of the school
environment that is experienced by participants,
affects their behavior, and is based on their
collective perception on behavior in school.
5
SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
The main propositions for this model is that
organizational climate consists of 1.
Supportive principal behavior 2. Directive
principal behavior 3. Engaged teacher
behavior 4. Frustrated teacher behavior 5.
Collegial teacher behavior From the dimensions
of this model of school organizational climate,
it is apparent that interpersonal relations, work
practices, teachers behaviors and principal
leadership behaviors in a school organization
create the climate of a school organization.
6
OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT
  • One of the more common definitions of
    occupational commitment states that occupational
    commitment refers to a persons belief in and
    acceptance of the values of his chosen occupation
    or line of work, and willingness to maintain
    membership in the occupation (Ritzer Trice,
    1969 Vandenberg Scarpello, 1994).
  • Occupational commitment as socially accepted
    behaviors that exceed formal and/normative
    expectations relevant to the object of
    commitment (p.48).Weiner and Gechmen (1977)

7
OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT
  • Affective occupational commitment (AOC) measured
    teachers desire to remain in the teaching
    profession, identification with, involvement in
    the teaching profession, and emotional attachment
    to teaching profession.
  • Continuance occupational commitment (COC)
    measured teachers recognition of the costs
    associated with leaving the teaching occupation,
    and sacrifice in the profession.
  • Normative occupational commitment (NOC) measured
    teachers sense of obligation and loyalty to the
    teaching profession.

8
  • Supportive principal behavior is directed towards
    both social needs and task achievement of the
    faculty. The principal is helpful, genuinely
    concerned with teachers, and attempts to motivate
    them by using constructive criticism and by
    setting an example through hard work.
  • Directive principal behavior is rigid and
    domineering. The principal maintains close and
    constant monitoring of all teachers and school
    activities down to the smallest detail.
  • Engaged teacher behavior reflects a faculty in
    which teachers are proud of their schools, enjoy
    working with each other, are supportive of their
    colleagues, and committed to the success of their
    students.

9
  • Frustrated teacher behavior depicts a faculty
    that feels burdened with routine duties,
    administrative paperwork and excessive
    assignments unrelated to teaching.
  • Intimate teacher behavior reflects a strong and
    cohesive network of social relations among the
    faculty.

10
Research Questions
  • This study endeavored to answer the following
    research questions
  • What is the level of overall occupational
    commitment of public secondary schools teachers?
  • What are the levels of public secondary school
    teachers occupational commitment as measured by
    affective, continuance and normative occupational
    commitment?
  • What is the level of organizational school
    climate as perceived by the public secondary
    school teachers?

11
Research Questions
  1. Is there a significant relationship between
    occupational commitment (affective, continuance
    and overall occupational commitment) and age,
    teaching experience, years in the present school
    and number of children?
  2. Is there a significant difference regarding
    teachers occupational commitment (affective,
    continuance and overall occupational commitment)
    based on their gender, marital status, academic
    qualification and ethnic group?
  3. Is there a significant relationship between
    teachers perceptions of organizational climate
    and occupational commitment (affective,
    continuance, normative and overall occupational
    commitment)?

12
Research Methodology
- This is a descriptive-correlational study. -
The sample of the study were full time public
secondary school teachers in Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia. A list of teachers names was obtained
from the State Department of Education. - The
sample was 510 teachers who had at least one year
of teaching experience in their current school.
- The research utilises 2 sets of
questionnaire, occupational commitment and
occupational climate.
13
Reliability Coefficients For the Study
Measurement Scale/Component Alpha Coefficient
Occupational Commitment Questionnaire (OCCQ) Affective Occupational Commitment Continuance Occupational Commitment Normative Occupational Commitment .88 .75 .85
Organisational Climate Questionnaire (OCDQ-RS) Supportive Principal Behavior Directive Principal Behavior Engaged Teacher Behavior Frustrated Teacher Behavior Intimate Teacher Behavior .79 .76 .83 .76 .87
14
Interpretation on the Strength of the Correlation
Coefficients
? r Strength of Relationship r2 ( of Variance Explained)
.75-1.00 .50-.74 .25-.49 .00-.24 Strong Moderate to High Low to Moderate Weak 56 to 100 25 to 55 6.3 to 21 0.0 to 5.8
15
Table 1Respondents Distribution According to
Age, Number of Children, Teaching Experience and
Years in the Present School.
Variable Frequency Percent Mean (SD) Range
Age (Years) lt 30 30-45 gt45 82 308 43 18.3 71.2 9.9 35.7 (6.7) 21-54
Number of children 0 1-2 gt2 101 165 167 23.3 38.2 38.5 2.1 (1.7) 0-10
Teaching Experience (Years) lt6 6-20 21 128 255 50 23.9 58.9 11.5 10.9 (7.3) 2-34
Years in a Current School lt5 5-14 gt14 232 169 32 53.6 39.0 7.4 6.0 (4.8) 2-30
16
Levels of Occupational Commitment
  • More than half of the respondents (55.4)
    indicated a moderate level of affective
    occupational commitment and more than one-third
    of the respondents (43) reported a high level. A
    great percentage of the respondents (70.4)
    reported a moderate level of continuance
    occupational commitment while nearly one-third of
    respondents (29.1) reported a high level.
  • For normative occupational commitment, almost
    two-thirds of the respondents (66) showed a
    moderate level and about one-third of them
    (33.5) showed a high level.
  • Furthermore, less than two-thirds of the
    respondents (62.8) indicated a moderate level of
    overall occupational commitment whereas just
    above one-third of the respondents (35.1) showed
    a high level of overall occupational commitment.

17
Level of Organizational Climate
  • More than one-half of the respondents (60.7)
    indicated that their principals were moderately
    supportive and just over 30 of the respondents
    indicated their principals were lowly supportive.
  • Related to directive principal behavior, more
    than half of the respondents (59.6) perceived
    that their principals practiced a moderate level
    of directive principal behavior while more that
    one-third of the respondents (35.3) perceived
    their principals practices a low level of
    directive principal behavior.

18
  • The results revealed that supportive principal
    behavior positively and significantly correlated
    with each dimension of occupational commitment
    affective, continuance, normative and overall
    occupational with r .14, .20, .13 and .17, p
    .05 respectively.
  • These results showed that the magnitude of
    correlations between supportive principal
    behavior and all dimensions of occupational
    commitment were week.
  • In relation to directive principal behavior, the
    results in Table 1 show that no significant
    relationship existed between respondents
    perception of directive principal behavior and
    each of affective, continuance, normative and
    overall occupational commitment.

19
  • For the relationship between frustrated teacher
    behavior and occupational commitment, it was
    found in table 2 that there was a negative and
    significant relationship between respondents
    perception of frustrated teacher behavior and
    each dimension of occupational commitment,
    affective occupational commitment (r -.23, p
    .01), continuance occupational commitment
    (r-.13, p .01) and overall occupational
    commitment (r-.21, p .01). the data inferred
    that the relationship between perception of
    frustrated teacher behavior and each of
    affective, continuance, normative and overall
    occupational commitment was weak.

20
  • The results showed that respondents perception
    of intimacy teacher behavior correlated
    positively with each of affective, continuance,
    normative and overall occupational commitment.
  • The relationship of perceptions of intimacy
    teacher behavior with affective occupational
    commitment was significant but weak with r.10 (p
    .05), whereas the relationship between
    perceptions of intimacy teacher behavior and
    continuance, normative and overall occupational
    commitment were not- significant.

21
Table 2 The Correlation Coefficients of
Occupational Commitment with Perceptions of
Organizational Climate
Variable AOC COC NOC Overall OC
Supportive Principal Behavior (SPB) .14 .20 .13 .17
Directive Principal Behavior (DPB) -.06 .02 -.02 -.04
Engaged Teacher Behavior (ETB) .26 .26 .22 .28
Frustrated Teacher Behavior (FTB) -.23 -.13 -.18 -.21
Intimacy Teacher Behavior (ITB) .10 .08 .06 .09
n 433 Significant at p
?.05 Significant at p.01 Note AOC
Affective Occupational Commitment,
COC Continuance Occupational Commitment
NOC Normative Occupational Commitment
22
IMPLICATION
  • Teachers level of occupational commitment is at
    a moderate level. The practitioners should find
    means to improve the level of occupational
    commitment as teachers are facing more challenges
    to carry out more responsibilities during this
    era of frequent educational reforms.
    Particularly, more improvement is required on
    continuance and normative occupational
    commitment. Furthermore, commitment to occupation
    is a multidimensional construct and each
    dimension has its factors that are associated
    with it.
  • From this, it is recommended that practitioners
    understand the distinctions of these forms of
    commitment (affective, continuance and normative
    occupational commitment) and factors associated
    with each of them in order to focus on whether
    they want to establish a policy of teachers
    commitment to their occupation. The practitioners
    should make clear which form of commitment
    teachers lack most and which form exists
    abundantly

23
IMPLICATION
  • Supportive principal behavior, engaged teacher
    behavior and frustrated teacher behavior have
    indicate their significant correlations with
    occupational commitment and its components.
    Principals in the schools should have a
    supportive approach to leadership in schools.
  • The Ministry should focus on giving roles that
    are relevant to the teaching profession and avoid
    giving work that teachers consider as irrelevant
    to their teaching occupations. Furthermore, to
    have teachers with a positive identification
    with, attachment to and involvement in their
    school, teachers intimacy should be given due
    consideration

24
IMPLICATION
  • School organization are an important place for
    teachers to become committed to their occupation
    because teachers practice their profession in
    schools, i.e. their working places. Therefore,
    principals and practitioners are required to make
    schools a place where teachers can become
    committed

25
KEPEMIMPINAN DAN IKLIM ORGANISASI SEKOLAH
  • IKLIM ORGANISASI SEKOLAH
  • Iklim organisasi ialah jumlah kualiti
    persekitaran dalam sesebuah organisasi. Iklim
    boleh dikategorikan kepada dua iaitu iklim
    terbuka dan iklim tertutup (Halpin Croft,
    1963). Iklim organisasi bermula dari bidang
    psikologi. Ia boleh digambarkan sebagai
    personaliti sesebuah sekolah. Apabila kita
    melawat mana-mana sekolah kita akan merasa wujud
    kelainan antara sekolah tersebut dengan sekolah
    lain.

26
IKLIM TERBUKA
  • Menggambarkan sebuah sekolah yang bertenaga,
    hidup dan sentiasa bergerak ke hadapan untuk
    mencapai matlamat. Iklim ini menyediakan rasa
    kepuasan dalam kalangan ahli sekolah. Tindakan
    kepemimpinan dilihat lebih mudah dan sesuai untuk
    kedua-dua pemimpin dan pengikut. Ciri utama iklim
    terbuka ialah tingkahlaku tulen ditonjolkan oleh
    ahli sekolah. Ciri-ciri iklim sekolah terbuka
    menggambarkan wujud kadar rintangan dan kadar
    terpisah yang rendah antara ahli, tidak
    menekankan pengeluaran, serta kadar kepercayaan
    dan pertimbangan yang tinggi diamalkan oleh
    pemimpin.

27
IKLIM TERTUTUP
  • Sikap tidak peduli dalam kalangan staf
    menggambarkan iklim tertutup. Organisasi sekolah
    tidak bergerak. Semangat staf berada di aras
    rendah kerana ahli organisasi tidak mencapai
    kepuasan dalam prestasi bekerja serta kepuasan
    dalam keperluan sosial mereka. Tingkahlaku ahli
    boleh ditafsirkan sebagai tidak tulen, dan
    organisasi dalam keadaan pergerakan mendatar.
    Jadi ciri-ciri iklim tertutup dicirikan oleh
    suasana di mana wujud kadar rintangan,
    pengasingan dan pemisahan antara ahli yang
    tinggi. Terdapat hubungan yang tidak mesra dalam
    kalangan guru dan guru tidak mempunyai semangat
    yang tinggi. Pemimpin pula memberi tekanan kepada
    pengeluaran.

28
MENGUKUR IKLIM SEKOLAH
  • Walaubagaimanapun, sebenarnya darjah keterbukaan
    iklim sekolah adalah hasil daripada interaksi
    antara ahli organisasi yang berkualiti. Hoy
    et.al, (1991) telah menjelaskan iklim sekolah
    melalui instrumen yang mengukur enam tingkahlaku
    seperti berikut yang dipanggil OCDQ-RE
    (Organizational Climate Description
    Questionnaire) untuk sekolah rendah.

29
  • 1. Tingkah laku Pengetua yang Menyokong
  • Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan pertimbangan
    terhadap guru. Pemimpin mendengar pandangan dan
    cadangan guru. Pujian diberikan dengan jujur dan
    kerap. Kritikan diberikan secara membina,
    kecekapan guru dihormati, dan pemimpin
    menunjukkan minat secara peribadi dan profesional
    kepada guru.
  • 2. Tingkah laku Pengetua yang Direktif
  • Tingkahlaku ini berbentuk rigid, penyeliaan
    rapi, pemimpin mengamalkan pemantauan dan kawalan
    yang berterusan terhadap kerja dan aktiviti guru
    dengan terperinci.

30
  • 3. Tingkah laku pengetua yang restrictive
  • Tingkahlaku ini menghalang, dan bukan membantu
    guru dalam melaksanakan tugas. Pengetua
    membebankan guru dengan menyediakan kertas kerja,
    menulis keperluan jawatankuasa, tugas rutin, dan
    keperluan tugas lain yang mengganggu
    tanggungjawab pengajaran mereka.
  • 4. Tingkah laku guru yang collegial
  • Tingkahlaku ini menyokong interaksi terbuka dan
    profesional antara guru. Guru merasa bangga
    terhadap sekolah, seronok bekerja dengan rakan
    setugas, bersemangat, menerima dan menghormati
    rakan sekerja.

31
  • 5. Tingkah laku guru yang mesra
  • Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan hubungan sosial
    yang kohesif antara guru. Guru-guru mengenali
    satu sama lain, menjadi rakan peribadi yang
    rapat, selalu bergaul bersama, dan menyediakan
    sokongan antara satu sama lain.
  • 6. Tingkah laku guru yang tidak mesra
  • Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan aktiviti
    profesional yang tidak berfokus dan tidak
    bermakna. Guru menggunakan masa untuk
    melaksanakan tugas yang tidak produktif, mereka
    tidak mempunyai matlamat bersama. Tingkahlaku
    mereka berbentuk negatif dan selalu mengkritik
    rakan di sekolah.

32
MENGUKUR IKLIM SEKOLAH MENENGAH
  • Hoy et.al (1991) juga telah membentuk satu laagi
    instrumen untuk mengukur iklim sekolah menengah
    yang dipanggil OCDQ-RS. Lima tingkahlaku
    digunakan untuk menjelaskan iklim organisasi
    sekolah menengah seperti berikut

33
  • 1. Tingkah laku Pengetua yang Menyokong
    (Supportive Principal Behaviour)
  • Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan usaha pengetua
    untuk memotivasikan guru-guru dengan menggunakan
    kritikan yang konstruktif dan memberi contoh
    melalui kerja kuat. Pada masa yang sama pengetua
    akan membantu dan memberi perhatian sebenar
    terhadap kebajikan peribadi dan profesional guru.
    Tingkahlaku ini terarah untuk mencapai keperluan
    sosial dan pencapaian tugas guru.

34
  • 2. Tingkah laku Pengetua yang direktif (Directive
    Principal Behaviour)
  • Tingkahlaku yang rigid dan mempraktikkan
    penyeliaan yang menindas. Pengetua tetap
    mengekalkan kawalan yang rapi dan berterusan
    terhadap guru dan aktiviti sekolah dengan
    terperinci.
  •  
  • 3. Tingkah laku guru yang engaged (Engaged
    Teacher Behaviour)
  • Tingkahlaku ini digambarkan oleh semangat guru
    yang tinggi. Guru bangga terhadap sekolahnya,
    seronok bekerja dengan rakan, dan menyokong rakan
    sekerja. Mereka bukan sahaja memberi perhatian
    terhadap satu sama lain, tetapi komited terhadap
    kejayaan pelajar mereka. Mereka mesra dengan
    pelajar, percayakan pelajar dan optimistik dengan
    keupayaan pelajar untuk berjaya.

35
  • 4. Tingkah laku guru yang kecewa (Frustrated
    Teacher Behaviour)
  • Tingkahlaku ini menggambarkan pola umum di mana
    wujud campurtangan pihak pentadbiran dan rakan
    sekerja yang menganggu tugas pengajaran yang
    asas. Tugas rutin, kertas kerja pentadbiran, dan
    terlalu banyak tugasan bukan pengajaran.
    Guru-guru berasa marah dan akan mengganggu antara
    satu sama lain.
  • 5. Tingkah laku guru yang mesra/intimate
    (Intimate Teacher Behaviour)
  • Tingkahlaku ini menunjukkan jaringan dan hubungan
    sosial antara guru yang kohesif dan kuat. Mereka
    mengenali dengan baik satu sama lain, berkawan
    dengan rapat dan mesra.

36
HUBUNGAN STAIL KEPEMIMPINAN DAN IKLIM SEKOLAH
Kuadran III Kuadran II
Pertimbangan tinggi Penstrukturan tugas rendah Pertimbangan tinggi Penstrukturan tugas tinggi
Kuadran IV Kuadran I
Pertimbangan rendah Penstrukturan tugas rendah Pertimbangan rendah Penstrukturan tugas tinggi
Tinggi
Penstrukturan Tugas
Rendah Tinggi
Pertimbangan
Rendah
37
  • Kuadran 1
  • Pemimpin ini rendah dalam pertimbangan tetapi
    tinggi dalam penstrukturan tugas. Beliau
    berorientasikan tugas dan hanya berminat dengan
    perlaksanaan tugas, lupa bahawa ia berurusan
    dengan manusia yang ada perasaan.
  •  
  • Kuadran II
  • Pemimpin ini tinggi dalam pertimbangan dan tinggi
    juga dalam menstrukturkan tugas. Beliau berjaya
    memimpin dengan cekap dan berkesan, mampu
    mengurus kakitangan dan kerja dengan baik.
  • Kuadran III
  • Pemimpin ini tinggi dalam pertimbangan tetapi
    rendah dalam menstrukturkan tugas. Beliau
    mengekalkan hubungan mesra dengan pekerja dan
    memberi sepenuh perhatian terhadap kebajikan
    kakitangan, tetapi tidak efektif dalam
    penyempurnaan tugas.
  •  
  • Kuadran IV
  • Pemimpin ini rendah dalam pertimbangan dan
    penstrukturan tugas. Cara kepimpinannya
    menghasilkan kekecohan dan tidak efektif.

38
  • SCHOOL CULTURE AND SCHOOL CLIMATE

39
INTRODUCTION
  • Culture of efficacy is defined as the extent to
    which the school teachers have mutual perception
    that their collective effort will positively
    impact students.
  • Culture of trust can be interpreted as the
    extent to which there is mutual trust between the
    principal and the teachers, the teachers abd the
    colleagues, the school personnel, parents and
    students.
  • Culture of control means the extent to which
    students are controlled in relation to the
    structure and norms of the school. TWO cultures
    of control
  • A custodial culture resulting in rigid and highly
    controlled setting that places too much
    importance on maintaining order.
  • Humanistic culture of control which encourages
    students to learn through cooperative interaction
    and experience.
  • School climate, on the other hand, can be viewed
    ad the environment of the school and this
    includes the formal and informal organisation,
    teaching and non- teaching staff as well as the
    students. School leadership plays an influential
    role in affecting the environment. The quality
    and character of the school is viewed based on
    the collective perception of what is experienced
    in school and can be measured via its open or
    close nature and whether it is a healthy
    organisation.

40
STRONG CULTURE, OPEN AND HEALTHY CLIMATE
  • Open climate share several characteristics
  • First and foremost, these principals are
    reflective in nature. They use information
    gathered from reports, teachers, parents, and
    community members to develop reasoned approaches
    for action and help generate new meanings about
    the changes ahead.
  • Second, they are collaborative. They share
    leadership with staff at al levels of the
    organisation because they know that teams of
    people who share the same goals are more
    effective than principals who work alone. These
    principals create time for teams to meet, plan,
    and teach together.
  • Third, they are intentional in what they do. They
    have a strong sense of direction and infuse their
    core values, beliefs, and attitudes into building
    an inclusive culture in their school. They also
    pace the rate and number of changes carefully to
    prevent the teaching staff from becoming
    overwhelmed.

41
  • Fourth, they are not afraid to take risks and are
    willing to try something different. They tend to
    be actively engaged in pursuing innovative
    solutions that can help include the minorities,
    whether due to abilities, culture, language, or
    ethnic origin.
  • Fifth, they place great importance on
    relationships. They go to the extra mile to
    work with staff, parents and community members to
    solve differences and find workable solutions.
    These principals work hard to build trust and
    promote changes by sharing information honestly
    with all involved.
  • Finally, they are accessible to the people in the
    school community. They are not chained to their
    desks. Instead, they routinely get involved at
    the ground level with students, teachers, parents
    and community members to address issues
    confronting their school.

42
UNHEALTHY CULTURE AND CLOSE CLIMATE
  • The culture is unhealthy when there is no
    passion and commitment among the school citizens
    and when the leadership of the school does not
    lead or enable interactions which lead to higher
    efficacy among the school citizens.
  • Toxic culture can also develop when school
    leadership ignores or neglects changes in the
    school which should be address.
  • Failure to address unhealthy school culture can
    result in the destruction of motivation,
    commitment and royalty of the students, teachers,
    administrators as well as parents.

43
THANK YOU
About PowerShow.com