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Sentence Family

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Title: Sentence Family Author: Abdessalami Last modified by: Sab Created Date: 11/13/2008 12:27:39 AM Document presentation format: Affichage l' cran – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sentence Family


1
M
A
D
R
S
A
A
T
I
2010
_at_
Abdessalami On_Line
2
What is a sentence?
3
How can I use this?
Click inside any slide to go forward Sometimes
you must use buttons like these to move
gt
You may also be prompted to click links If you
want to leave, just press Esc. Key. Have a nice
time.
4
This presentation will try to answer the
following questions
1. What do we mean by a sentence?
2. What are phrases and clauses?
3. What are the major constituants?
4. How many types of sentences are there?
5. How many sentence forms are there?
5
Let's go!
1. What do we mean by a sentence?
2. What are phrases and clauses?
3. What are the major constituants?
4. How many types of sentences are there?
5. How many sentence forms are there?
6
1. What do we mean by a sentence?
A sentence is a grammatical unit that should
  • Be independent stand alone
  • Make sense.
  • Express a single thought
  • Have a subject and a verb.
  • Start with a CAPITAL LETTER
  • End in a full stop (.)

Whats this?
gt
7
The subject is who or what the sentence is
talking about, usually a noun or pronoun
  • Ali is a Moroccan student
  • I am working on the computer.
  • A sentence is a group of words
  • They live next to the bank.

8
The verb tells what the subject is or does
  • Ali is a Moroccan student.
  • I am working on the computer.
  • The cat drinks milk.
  • They live next to the bank.
  • We are fine.

9
What are Phrases clauses?
Some sentences are composed of many phrases and
clauses. They are parts of the sentence and they
rarely work independently.
Phrases
Clauses
10
The Phrase
A phrase is a fragment that consists of more than
a word and it conveys no meaning by itself as it
lacks the subject. There are many sorts of
phrases
  • Adpositional phrase
  • Postpositional phrase
  • Prepositional phrase
  • Noun phrase
  • Pronominal phrase
  • Verb phrase
  • Phrasal verbs

11
The Clause
Skip this!
12
The Clause (1)
Some sentences could contain more than one
clause. They are two types
Subordinate clause
Main clause
Independent clause
depends on the main clause
I feel tired because I work hard.
Main Clause
Subordinate clause
13
The Clause (2)
While I was taking a walk, I came across my
primary school teacher.
Main clause
Subordinate clause
I came across my primary school teacher can
be a whole sentence. So It is the main clause.
While I was taking a walk is subordinate to the
main clause. You notice That its meaning isnt
complete. It depends on what the main clause says.
There are many types of clauses
14
Relative Clauses
These are the most frequently used either in
writing or in speaking. They are introduced by
Who - whom - whose - which -
that
Examples
The boy who solved the problem is my nephew. The
man whom you were talking to for a while is his
father. The lady whose eyes are blue is his
mother. The briefcase which is over there is his.
And that replaces who , which and
often whom in many situations and it is
mostly used in Spoken English.
Relative clauses can be restrictive or
non-restrictive. Restrictive ones take commas
but non-restrictive dont.
15
Adverbial Clauses
These are also used very so often and they are
introduced by
When - where - why
Examples
We visited the house where Shakespeare was
born. This is the reason why she wanted to go to
Stratford. She went there in the day when the
house was being mended.
16
Coordinate clauses
These are usually in pairs and they are
subordinated one to the other by
and - but - or
Examples
1
2
I will cook dinner and she will do the washing
up. Ali speaks four languages but Nadia speaks
only one. I will revise my lessons or I will do
my homework.
1
2
2
1
17
Existential clause
Mostly used in stories. It indicates a true to
life or imaginary existence of a person or a
thing.
Its form is always THERE was/were
noun clause
Example
There was a beautiful little princess There were
some huge ugly giants
It is often used to invite readers to make some
interpretations.
18
Nominal Clause
Is a subordonate clause that functions as a noun
phrase.
Examples
I think that its alright. From where he is, he
could see the match.
A complement clause is a nominal clause.
19
Some more Clauses
  • Equative clause
  • Finite clause
  • Nonfinite clause
  • Medial clause
  • Reference clause
  • Final clause

e.g. She is young / she young
is used with a finite verb
is used with a nonfinite verb like the infinitive.
or nonfinal clause is distinguished in a clause
chain
where the subject is an argument.
is a dinstinguished clause in a clause chain
For further details submit any of them to search
engines
20
The Phrase
Skip this!
21
The constituants
The sentence is generally composed of three main
constituants notably,
SUBJECT
VERB
OBJECT
Ali is
a doctor Cats
drink milk Cars
have horns
And this is the base form of the simple sentence
22
Types of sentences
There are three types
The simple sentence
The compound sentence
The complex sentence
23
The simple sentence
The simple sentence contains a subject and a verb
and expresses a complete thought, but it can also
contain a compound subject or verb. 
Simple Sentence Single subject single verb
Simple sentence with a compound subject.
Examples
  • Leila is playing tennis.
  • Ali and Jamal like to stay in bed.
  • Nadia goes to the park and revises her lessons.

Simple Sentence with a compound verb
24
The compound sentence
The compound sentence is two simple sentences or
independent clauses joined together by one of
these conjunction known as FANBOYS For, And,
Nor, But, Or, Yet, So. 
My sister is a doctor.
Examples
Simple sentence 1
She works in a hspital.
Simple sentence 2
My sister is a doctor, and she works in a
hospital.
Leila is Moroccan, but she lives in France.
25
The complex sentence
A complex sentence has at least one main clause
and one or more subordinate clauses. A complex
sentence always has a subordinator such as
because, since, after, although, or when or a
relative pronoun such as that, who, or which
Examples
I read the book (which) you gave me
yesterday. They jumped into the pool when the
referee whistles. She didnt do well at the test
because she was sick. Since there is no milk left
in the fridge, lets buy some.

The sentences containing relative or adjective
clauses are complex.
Sentence Forms
26
The flexibility of language styles makes it
possible to use different forms to express
oneself in different ways depending on what you
want to say and how you want to say it. So
How many forms can the sentence take?
27
Those sentences looking for answers take the form
of questions and always end in a question mark.
We call them
Interrogative
  • Whats your name?
  • How many slides are there in this presentation?
  • Will you close the window please?
  • How much does the jacket cost?
  • Did leila invite you to her wedding party?
  • It is very cold outside, isnt it?
  • How often do you connect to the Internet?
  • Have you finished yet?
  • And so on

28
Those which give direct orders, commands or
advice and also often express prohibition. We
call them
Imperative
  • You must call the police right now.
  • You should respect the elderly.
  • Bring it up here.
  • You cant park your car here.
  • You arent allowed to smoke in public places.
  • Stand up.

29
Those which show that we are astonished or
surprised and always end in an exclamation mark
We simply call them
Exclamatory
  • What a wonderful move
  • Thats amazing
  • How delicious couscous is
  • That little boy solved the problem
  • Etc.

30
But those which state facts, arguments or
indirect questions We call them
Declarative
  • Rabat is the capital city of Morocco.
  • Water is a liquid.
  • I always thought that love is sacred.
  • She wanted to know how old I was.
  • Etc.

31
All of them could be
Affirmative
I do NOT like pizza.
I like couscous.
or
Negative
32
Did you see these?
Phrases
Clauses
Yes, I did
33
See you soon
34
So! Did you like it? Yes or No?
Yes
No
35
So! Did you like it? Yes or No?
No
Yes
36
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