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Antisocial Behavior: Aggression


Title: PowerPoint Presentation - Cognitive Development: Piaget Author: Dr. Scott A. Adler Last modified by: Scott A. Adler Created Date: 10/24/2000 10:27:49 PM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Antisocial Behavior: Aggression

Antisocial Behavior Aggression
  • Behavior that is intended to cause harm to
    persons or property and that is not socially
  • Based less on consequences and more on intentions
  • Types
  • Verbal, hostile (cause pain), instrumental (to
    obtain), and relational (damage social

  • Between 18 mos and 5 years, no relation between
    age and overall aggession
  • Physical and instrumental are greater at younger
  • Verbal and hostile are more common at school ages
  • Overall aggression decreases from first to fifth

Aggression Gender
  • In preschool and elementary school, boys show
    more aggression than girls
  • From preschool to adolescence, girls display more
    relational aggression than boys, and typically
    directed toward girls
  • Late elementary, physical aggression between boys
    increases, but by boys towards girls decreases

Aggression Determinants
  • Aggression is stable with age
  • Aggression at 8 years is predictive of level at
  • Identical twins are more similar than fraternal
  • Hormones
  • Strong relation between aggression and
    testosterone level

Aggression Determinants
  • Temperament
  • Difficult babies is predictive of aggression in
    childhood and adolescence
  • Dominance
  • Chidren display hierarchy established by

Aggression Determinants
  • Family processes
  • Parents use power assertion and excessive
    physical punishment
  • Parents may be modeling aggressive behavior
  • Aggressive children come from negative home
    environments (coercive family process)
  • Television
  • Sat morning, 23 violent scenes/hour
  • 2.5-4 hours of TV watching per day
  • Age 21, watched approximately 8,000 murders

TV Aggression
  • TV violence does result in more aggressive
  • They imitate (especially if violence is performed
    by the good guys)
  • Makes them more tolerant of aggression
  • In turn, it makes them watch more violence
  • Amount of violence watched at age 8 is predictive
    of crime level at age 30

TV Aggression
  • There has been a clear demonstration of a causal
    link between amount of violence one watches on TV
    and level of aggressive behavior
  • What causes the link?

TV Aggression Social-cognitive observational
learning theory
  • Long-term effects of TV on aggression have been
    linked to
  • Acquisition through observational learning of
    three social-cognitive structures
  • schemas about a hostile world
  • social problem solving that focus on aggression,
    and normative
  • beliefs that aggression is acceptable
  • Young children imitate behaviors they see
  • Observation of specific aggressive behaviors
    around them increases childrens likelihood of
    behaving in exactly that way

TV Aggression Desensitization theory
  • Most humans have an innate negative emotional
    response to observing blood, gore, and violence.
  • Increased heart rates, perspiration, and
    self-reports of discomfort accompany exposure
  • With repeated exposure to violence, negative
    emotional response habituates
  • the observer becomes desensitized

TV Aggression Other theories
  • Aggressive behavior or a correlate of aggressive
    behavior stimulates exposure to violence
  • thus engenders the observed relation between them
  • An aggressive child simply likes watching media
    violence more than other children do
  • Social comparison theory
  • suggests that aggressive children feel happier
    and more justified if they believe they are
    notalone in their aggression
  • viewing media violence makes them feel happier
    because it convinces them that they are not

TV Aggression third variable theory
  • Suggests that observed long-term relations
    between aggression and exposure to media violence
    are spurious
  • derived from joint association with one or more
    third variables
  • Such as demographic, family, and personal
    characteristics, and social class and IQ which
    are known to be correlated both with TV viewing
    and with aggression

TV Aggression Arousal
  • Observed violence (real world or media) arouses
    the observer
  • aggressive behavior may become more likely due to
    excitation transfer and general arousal
  • Excitation transfer a subsequent provocation may
    be perceived as more severe than it is because
    emotional response stimulated by the observed
    violence is misattributed as being due to the
  • General arousal arousal stimulated by observed
    violence may reach a peak that the ability to
    inhibiting aggression is reduced

Video Game stats
  • About 10 of children aged 2 to 18 play console
    and computer video games more than 1 hr/day
  • Among 8- to 13-year-old boys, the average is more
    than 7.5 hr/week
  • In 1998, 13.3 of men entering college played at
    least 6 hr/week as high school seniors.
  • 1999, increased to 14.8
  • 2 of the men reported playing video games more
    than 20 hr/week in 1998. In 1999, that increased
    to 2.5.

Video Game stats
  • Fourth-grade girls (59) and boys (73) report
    that the majority of their favorite games are
    violent ones
  • Teens in grades 8 through 12 report that 90 of
    their parents never check the ratings of video
    games before allowing their purchase
  • 1 of the teens parents had ever prevented a
    purchase based on its rating
  • 89 reported that their parents never limited
    time spent playing video games

Video Games Aggression
  • Why does violent media increase aggression and
  • Learning of aggressive cognitive scripts
  • Violent games increase aggression by teaching
    observers how to aggress, by priming aggressive
    cognitions, by increasing arousal, or by creating
    an aggressive affective state.
  • Each violent-media episode is essentially one
    more learning trial

Video Games Aggression