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Learning Through Various Cognitive Models


Learning Through Various Cognitive Models Lesson 11 Cognitive Views of Learning Cognitive views of learning focus on the mental processes which might be occurring in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Through Various Cognitive Models

Learning Through Various Cognitive Models
  • Lesson 11

Cognitive Views of Learning
  • Cognitive views of learning focus on the mental
    processes which might be occurring in the
  • Learning is defined as a change within a persons
    internal mental structures or mental processes.

Learning Assumptions and Cognitive Views
  • Some learning processes are unique to human
  • Cognitive processes are the focus of learning in
    this presentation.
  • Inferences about unobservable mental processes
    can often be drawn from objective, systematic
    observations of peoples behavior.

Learning in the Cognitive Model Includes
  • Individuals are actively involved in the learning
  • The formation of mental associations are not
    necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes.
  • Knowledge is organized.
  • Learning is a process of relating new information
    to previously learned information.

Three Cognitive Models for Discussion
  • Information Processing.
  • Constructivism.
  • Meta-cognition strategies.

Information Processing Model
  • This model provides a view of how new information
    is stored in a persons long-term memory.
  • In this model there are three types of memory
    sensory memory, working memory (also called
    short-term memory), and long-term memory.

Information Processing Model
Sensory Memory
What does it do? Stores information from surroundings for very short periods of time (1/2 second for sight, 3 seconds for hearing).
Barriers to learning? Lack of attention.
What strategies work? People pay attention when the stimulus is interesting and related to something they already know.
Short-term Memory
What does it do? It holds 7 (2) pieces of information that we have attended to for 15-20 seconds.
Barriers to learning? If a child can only hold 3 pieces of information, make sure to give the most essential items.
Activity 1
  • You will view a list of letters for 15 seconds.
  • When I say GO, recall and write down as many
    letters as you can.

You have 15 seconds.
  • FB
  • IMT
  • VU
  • SAHB
  • OC
  • IA

Short-term Memory
What strategies work? Rehearsal (repeating) information or organizing information? Classifying parts/whole Sequential Relevance/imaginary Transition/model Chunking
Activity 1 again
  • You will view the list of letters for 15 seconds
    once again.
  • When I say GO, recall and write down as many
    letters as you can.

You have 15 seconds
  • FBI
  • MTV
  • USA
  • HBO
  • CIA

Results of Activity 1
  • Everyone performed much better.
  • Notice how chunking, a reorganization
    technique, greatly simplified the task.
  • What implications does this activity have for the
    classroom teacher?

Long-term Memory
What does it do? Stores information that will be needed often.
Barriers to learning? Although we might have stored the information, we sometimes cant recall where it is. Stored information is never forgotten, just lost.
Long-term Storage
What strategies work? Periodic review (trivia flashcards) or elaboration (as in adding memory clues to the information) Elaboration can be creating mental pictures, pegwords (number, rhyming schemes), rhymes (songs, jingles), mnemonic devices (Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally) Using the information in various ways with different organization tools is helpful. Applying information.
Activity 2
  • The works of William Shakespeare (Hamlet,
    MacBeth, and others) are often used to describe
    modern day political leaders. Write up a sample
    assignment that asks students to make political
    and biographical parallels between a world leader
    and one of Shakespeares characters.

Constructivism Model
What is Constructivism?
  • A philosophy of learning founded on the
    premise that, by reflecting on our experiences,
    we construct our own understanding of the world
    around us.

What is Student Constructivism?
  • In the constructivist classroom, students
    generate their knowledge, or mental models,
    rules, or representations of information based on
    their classroom experiences.

Guiding Principles of Constructivism
  • Learning is a search for meaning.
  • Meaning requires understanding of wholes as well
    as parts, and parts must be understood in context
    to wholes. (Not isolated facts)
  • Teacher must understand mental models that
    students use to perceive the world.
  • Learning is to have the student construct his/her
    own meaning, not memorize right answers.

What a Constructivist Classroom Looks Like
  • Student autonomy and initiative are accepted and
  • The teacher asks open-ended questions and allows
    wait time for responses.
  • Higher-level thinking is encouraged.
  • Students are engaged in dialogue with the
  • Usually reserved for Tier 1 (honor) students.

What a Constructivist Classroom Looks Like
  • Students are engaged in experiences that
    challenge hypotheses and encourage discussion.
  • The class uses raw data, primary sources,
    manipulatives, physical and interactive materials.

Activity 3
  • Design an assignment that requires a student
    or group of students to prove (or disprove) the
    need for a traffic light in front of their
    school. The assignment should outline research
    tools to use, how much and what kind of data to

Meta-Cognition Basics
What is meta-cognition?
  • Thinking about thinking
  • Knowing what we know and what we dont know.
  • Knowing how we learn best.
  • Developing goals for a learning task
  • Monitoring our comprehension or performance
  • Evaluating our learning progress.

Applying Meta-cognition to a Learning Task
  • Phase 1 Develop a plan of action.
  • Phase 2 Maintain/monitor the plan
  • Phase 3 Evaluate the plans success.
  • Each phase connected to a time before, during,
    and after the learning task.

Developing the Before Part of the Plan
  • What prior knowledge will help me with this
    particular task?
  • In what direction do I want my thinking to take
  • What should I do first?
  • Why am I performing this task?
  • How much time do I have to complete this task?

Developing the Maintain Monitor Part of the
  • How am I doing?
  • Am I on the right track?
  • How should I proceed?
  • What information is important to remember?
  • Should I move in a different direction?
  • Should I adjust the pace if it gets more
  • What do I do if I do not understand?

Developing the Evaluate Part of the Plan
  • How well did I do?
  • Did my course of thinking produce more or less
    than I expected?
  • How might I apply this line of thinking to other
  • Do I need to go back through the task to fill any
    blanks in my understanding?

Activity 4
To be effective, a teacher must constantly
monitor student academic progress and design
lessons and tests that will enhance the learning
experience. Design a general and realistic plan
or strategy that will help you, the new teacher,
keep track of student progress, significantly
minimize student failure, and maximize student
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