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Stem Cells

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Stem Cells Chapter 21 What are stem cells These are cells which have not terminally differentiated yet There are many types in our bodies Some appeared early and are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stem Cells


1
Stem Cells
  • Chapter 21

2
What are stem cells
  • These are cells which have not terminally
    differentiated yet
  • There are many types in our bodies
  • Some appeared early and are now no longer there
  • Other appeared later and some are there even
    today
  • The earliest stem cell is the fertilized egg
    itself - it can grow into every other human cell
  • The fertilized egg is called a zygote
  • The zygote is therefore called totipotent (TOTAL)
  • It may give rise to all the cells needed to make
    a baby
  • The entire baby
  • Extraembryonic tissue
  • The umbilical cord
  • The placenta

3
Naming convention
  • Egg (Oocyte) and sperm - n each
  • Zygote - 2n
  • Embryo
  • Fetus (Foetus) - organ formation
  • Infant
  • Adolescent
  • Adult

4
Types of Stem Cells
  • There are many different types of stem cells
  • Adult Stem Cells - multipotent
  • All over your body
  • i.e. lining of the gut
  • i.e. there are special stem cells that give rise
    to the B and T cells of the immune system - no
    others, just these
  • Embryonic Stem Cells - pluripotent
  • Are different - see later
  • Fetal stem cells - pluripotent
  • Stem cells taken from aborted fetal tissue
  • Umbilical stem cells - multipotent
  • Stem cells take from umbilical cords - treatment
    of blood disorders

5
21_31_genome_clone.jpg
6
21_32_multicell_animal.jpg
7
21_38_blood.jpg
8
Development of the Immune System

9
21_39_hemopoietic.jpg
10
  • III. What are embryonic stem cells?
  • A. What stages of early embryonic development are
    important for generating embryonic stem cells?
  • Embryonic stem cells, as their name suggests, are
    derived from embryos. Specifically, embryonic
    stem cells are derived from embryos that develop
    from eggs that have been fertilized in vitro, in
    an in vitro fertilization clinic, and then
    donated for research purposes with informed
    consent of the donors. They are not derived from
    eggs fertilized in a woman's body. The embryos
    from which human embryonic stem cells are derived
    are typically four or five days old and are a
    hollow microscopic ball of cells called the
    blastocyst. The blastocyst includes three
    structures the trophoblast, which is the layer
    of cells that surrounds the blastocyst the
    blastocoel, which is the hollow cavity inside the
    blastocyst and the inner cell mass, which is a
    group of approximately 30 cells at one end of the
    blastocoel.

11
21_40_ES_cells.jpg
12
21_41_cloning.jpg
13
21_35_stem_cell.jpg
14
Stem Cell Controversy
  • What is all the fuss about?
  • Watch this piece
  • An update here

15
Latest
  • Two groups have transformed skin cells into
    something very similar to embryonic stem cells.
  • Using special genes added to the cells, the teams
    tricked the cells into reverting back to their
    embryonic state.
  • Early days
  • Solves the ethical issues!
  • Self cells can be used easily.
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