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By: Monica Pilarski David Bernstein Jenny Smith

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Title: Cloning The Law, Ethics and Sciences Author: David Bernstein Last modified by: David Bernstein Created Date: 11/16/2001 9:15:08 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: By: Monica Pilarski David Bernstein Jenny Smith


1
By Monica Pilarski David Bernstein Jenny
Smith
2
The Sciences
  • Cloning comes from the Greek word klwn meaning
    twig. The reason? Its simple, every plant you
    buy at any garden center is a clone of some
    distant relative, which once supplied a
    side-shoot for rooting.

3
The Procedures
  • Cloning is a long and rigorous process that
    includes many step by step procedures. Here is a
    brief overview of some of the steps.
  • Using a laparoscope, scientists retrieve eggs
    from the female subject.
  • Next, they place the eggs under a microscope and
    use a pipette to puncture them and extract the
    nuclei out of the cells.
  • Later, they isolate the nucleus and use a mild
    electrical shock to coax the nucleus into moving
    into the genetically empty egg.
  • After days of monitoring the health of the
    resulting clone, the fertilized egg is then
    inserted into the mother to begin its new stage
    of development.

4
Benefits
  • One of the most valuable benefits that cloning
    has, is the ability to clone healthy human
    organs.
  • Scientists have stated that cloning can be used
    to clone a healthy organ of some sort and replace
    the damaged with the new healthy one.
  • A specific example is that of a heart - by being
    able to treat heart attack victims by cloning
    their healthy heart cells and injecting them into
    the areas of the heart that have been damaged.
  • Cloning can also benefit humans in other ways
    such as repairing defective genes, replacing
    cancer cells, and helping infertility.

5
Dolly
  • Dolly was not created by the normal union of a
    sperm and egg cell from two parents. Instead,
    she was created from the sex cells of one sheep.
  • Dolly was created in a glass dish where the
    nucleus of a cell was taken from an adult sheep
    and inserted into an egg.
  • The successful cloning of Dolly brings us a step
    closer in being able to clone humans.

6
The Ethics
  • Cloning is one of the most controversial issues
    in todays society due to every persons own set
    of moral beliefs.
  • There are many different policies that must be
    considered when conducting clinical research.

7
7 Ethical Requirements of Clinical Research
  1. Value - when doing experimentation with cloning,
    we must first decide whether or not the
    conclusions will lead to some sort of improvement
    in health and well-being.
  2. Scientific Validity there must be a clear
    objective for cloning. Cloning research must be
    based on proven scientific knowledge and methods.
  3. Fair Subject Selection - In choosing subjects to
    take part in cloning, there mustnt be any biases
    or discrimination.
  4. Favorable risk-benefit ratio - minimize the risk
    and maximize the benefits of cloning.
  5. Independent Review A board reviews the topics
    and ethical issues of cloning.
  6. Informed Consent When human cloning begins it
    will be relevant that the subject give consent to
    the experimentation.
  7. Respect for Enrolled Subjects Those who take
    place in cloning research or processes must be
    guaranteed their human rights and be given the
    proper respect.

8
The Law
  • There have been numerous bills that have been
    introduced into Congress to prohibit or control
    cloning practices.
  • Congress explains that cloning is illegal in the
    following terms It shall be unlawful for any
    person or entity
  • 1) to perform or attempt human cloning
  • 2) to participate in an attempt to perform human
    cloning
  • 3) to ship or receive the product of human
    cloning for any purpose.
  • Federal funding of cloning is prohibited in the
    US.

9
  • National Institute of Health
  • Research should be allowed on preexisting
    embryos.
  • In certain compelling instances, researchers
    would be allowed to remove embryonic cells from
    embryos that were meant for in vitro
    fertilization.
  • Impregnating clone embryos into humans should be
    banned.
  • National Bioethics Advisory Commission
  • It is morally unacceptable for anyone in public
    or private sector to clone humans.
  • Any attempt to clone humans is irresponsible and
    unethical.
  • It is ok to clone DNA sequences, cell lines, and
    animals because it does not raise the issues
    human cloning does.
  • There should be regulations on the humane use of
    animals.

10
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