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Thinking Tools

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Thinking Tools What are they? Why do we use them? How do we use them? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thinking Tools


1
Thinking Tools
  • What are they?
  • Why do we use them?
  • How do we use them?

2
Thinking is a skill which must be explicitly
taught.Therefore Thinking Tools provide
strategies and processes to aid this development.

3
The right tools are necessary to complete a set
problem or task. If given the tools to do this,
then the task becomes manageable. Offering an
appropriate thinking strategy, tool or process
will more likely produce better discussion and
therefore achieve the intended outcome. Eric
Frangenheim
4
  • Exponents of Thinking Tools
  • influencing Bellevue School
  • Eric Frangenheim
  • International Facilitator who works extensively
    in New Zealand.
  • Has worked with ICT PD Cluster (Rotorua), which
    was
  • attended by Bellevue School IT Lead Teachers.
    2008
  • Michael Pohl
  • International Key Note speaker and workshop
    facilitator at the
  • Waimarino ICT PD Cluster Mini Conference. 2008

5
A model which is used to develop
critical and creative thinking is
Blooms Taxonomy. a model which provides a
broad range of higher order thinking skills.
a tool used for planning and delivery of
curriculum.
6
Blooms Taxonomy
Blooms Taxonomy
H I G H E R O R D E R
F O U N D A T I O N
T H I N K I N G
T H I N K I N G
Eric Frangenheim
7
Critical Thinking cannot
be developed by low order,
yes / no or closed questions.
Analysis Evaluate Critical Thinking
Students taking responsibility for their own
thinking.
8
Students are empowered when
  • They understand the level of the question (Bloom
    - Evaluation)
  • They understand the expected outcome (behave like
    a Judge)
  • They know which appropriate thinking
    strategy/tool/process to employ

Eric Frangenheim
9
Many different Thinking Tools have been
developed.They are used within Blooms
Taxonomy.They are used both within integrated
learning units and as stand alone
activities.They are suited to varied tasks and
varied ages.
PMI
TP
Round Robin
KWL
Silent Shuffle
Thinking Hats
Thinking Keys
Y Chart
10
1. De Bonos 6 Thinking HatsA visual tool
enabling students to identify what type of
thinking they are using for any given
tasks.Particularly effective with young
students.
11
Black hat - What is wrong with this?
Why will this not work?Yellow hat
- What is good about this?
Why does this work?White hat - What are the
facts? How do we find
out?Red hat - What do I feel about
this?Green hat - What ideas do we have?
How do I work this out?Blue hat
- What have we done?
What do we do next?
12
  • Group or individual tasks
  • Wearing the White Hat. (What are the facts
    about this picture?)
  • Wearing the Yellow Hat. (What is good about
    this, what works well?)
  • Wearing the Black Hat. (What is bad about this,
    what does not work?)
  • Wearing the Red Hat. (How do you feel about
    this?)

13
Students can be given opportunities to self
assess their understanding of the Thinking Hats
and when each should be used.
14
  • Students learn to identify
  • which coloured hat they need,
  • and this
  • clarifies their thinking
  • creates a focus for their thinking

15
2. Brainstorming
  • Lots of ideas wanted
  • All responses recorded
  • Criticism not allowed
  • Thinking outside the square
  • Ideas are discussed.
  • Ideas are analysed.
  • Judgements are made.
  • Solutions found, decisions made.

16
  • Extended Brainstorming
  • Fluency - flood of ideas
  • Flexibility - different kinds of ideas
  • Originality - unusual ideas
  • Elaboration - expanded ideas
  • e.g.
  • Ways to catch a cheetah
  • Things that are cold
  • Uses for a metre of string
  • Things found underground

17
The Problem with Brainstorming
  • Only 1 student out of 30 3
  • Not all are engaged
  • Too bright. Too confused
  • gt15 seconds energy nosedive
  • Good news all strategies or thinking tools are
    better forms of Brainstorming so therefore more
    student engagement

Eric Frangenheim
18
3. PMI - Plus, minus, interesting De
Bono (improving)
  • A simple and effective tool in which students
    can organise their ideas and clarify their
    thinking.
  • PMI helps students learn to
  • see both sides of an argument
  • view things from a different point of view
  • think broadly about an issue
  • suspend judgement
  • make informed decisions
  • work as individuals, in pairs or as members of a
    group

19
Students are given a format on which to record
their ideas.
20
  • PMI can be a fun format through which to
    encourage lateral thinking
  • What if cats were all green?
  • What if dogs lived underground?
  • What if dinosaurs still lived?

21
4. Thinkers keys Tony Ryan
Strategies to encourage divergent thinking and
discussion. Question starters are presented to
unlock thinking abilities of students.
  • The Reverse
  • The What if
  • The Disadvantages
  • The Combination
  • The BAR
  • The Alphabet
  • The Variations
  • The Picture
  • The Prediction
  • The Different Uses
  • The Ridiculous
  • The Commonality
  • The Question
  • The Brainstorming
  • The Inventions
  • The Brick Wall
  • The Construction
  • The Forced Relationships
  • The Alternative
  • The Interpretation

22
5. Graphic organisers
  • Recording
  • Organising
  • Focusing
  • Comparing
  • Contrasting
  • Analysing
  • Judging
  • Recalling

23
KWI
Graphic organiser
What I know What I want to know What I have learned
facts questions prior knowledge
24
Venn diagraman analytical tool to depict
shared characteristics
Graphic Organiser
25
Y Chart
Graphic Organiser
Looks like
Feels like
Sounds like
26
Tournament Prioritiser
Graphic Organiser
  • Sorting priorities on a set topic
  • Create a list
  • Seed the list
  • Discuss and feedback

27
Eric Frangenheim
28
If you were shipwrecked what would you take onto
a deserted island?
29
(Noisy) Round Robin
Graphic Organiser
  • Have definite aim or purpose
  • Generate a large number of ideas quickly
  • Follow set rules
  • Have teams of 2-4
  • Have set topic
  • Have I scribe per team
  • Follow Brainstorm rules

30
  • Groups record their ideas on a topic
  • Papers rotate around the groups who add their own
    new ideas
  • Groups decide on their 2-4 top ideas

  • the most dangerous idea

  • the most creative idea etc
  • Teacher records all chosen ideas
  • Discussion follows

  • Critical thinking!

31
Silent Card Shuffle
Graphic Organiser
  • Silent Card Classification (no talking)
  • Challenge, Justify, Improve
  • In groups, circle, observe, discuss
  • Return and Refine
  • Teacher Debrief

Eric Frangenheim
32
NOUNS ADJECTIVES VERBS ADVERBS ARTICLES PREPOSITIONS PRONOUNS
The Judge In a cup. Who says so?
Flagpole Green Sang Quickly the up who
Businessman Jovial Climbed Carefully a for he
Umbrella Tropical Manoeuvred Ridiculously an in it
Key Big Jumped Often the of they
ly
Eric Frangenheim
33
  • We aim to encourage students to
  • take some responsibility for their
  • own learning.
  • We aim to engage students
  • positively in decision making and
  • thinking critically and creatively.

34
  • We aim to develop in our students positive
  • habits Habits of Mind!
  • These are 16 habits developed by Art Costa.
  • Persistence Stop
    and think
  • Listening
    Working with others
  • Creating and innovating New ideas
  • Make it right
    Thats funny
  • Learning forever
    Questions
  • Being clever
    Thinking flexibly
  • 5 Senses
    Thinking about thinking
  • Wow!
    Past knowledge

35
Eric Frangenheim offers some award winning
examples of not using critical and lateral
thinking.
36
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40
  • The development of
  • analytical, critical and creative thinking
  • in students,
  • can be positively enhanced
  • by the use of varied
  • Thinking Tools.

Thinking Tools Pam Seath 2008
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