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Measuring R


Measuring R&D: Challenges Faced by Developing Countries National training workshop Amman, Jordan 18-20 October 2010 Outline The problem The process Contents of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Measuring R

Measuring RD Challenges Faced by Developing
National training workshop Amman, Jordan18-20
October 2010
  • The problem
  • The process
  • Contents of the Technical Guide
  • Thinking ahead

RD statistics in developing countries (1)
  • Recognition, meeting targets, evidence-based ST
    policy, but
  • lack of interest at the level of policy makers
    (low policy-relevance?)
  • ST is still not properly represented in
    economic/social public policies. lack of
    resources devoted to statistics in ST
  • lack of technical knowledge for the production of
    cross-nationally comparable RD statistics
  • weak statistical institutions
  • difficulties in applying FM concepts and methods

RD statistics in developing countries (2)
  • Particular characteristics of RD activities to
    be taken into account
  • RD performers function within the specific
    context of a national, cultural, political,
    financial and economic system
  • different structures in terms of government,
    innovation system, higher education system,
    statistical system
  • particular culture of information
  • Users of RD stat Gov, analysts. international
    donor agencies
  • ST indicators
  • adapted to particular policy needs
  • provide answers to actual policy questions
  • However, international comparability is foremost

The process
  • Process started in 2007
  • Lead papers by consultants
  • Meetings in 2007 and 2010
  • Experience acquired through the UIS work
  • Proposal for an annex to the Frascati Manual at
    the OECD 2008 and 2009 NESTI meetings
  • Technical Guide released in English
  • Translations in Spanish and French almost finished

NEW Annex proposed
Contents of the Technical Guide
  1. Introduction
  2. The nature of RD activity in developing
  3. RD expenditure
  4. Internal and international mobility of the RD
  5. Specific fields of RD activity
  6. Foreign and internationally controlled entities
  7. Strengthening RD statistical systems
  8. Thinking ahead

Chapter 2 The nature of RD activity in
developing countries
  • The growing importance of RD
  • More R than D in developing countries.
  • Strong presence of the government and higher
    education sectors in the performance of RD.
    Lower emphasis on RD in business sector.
  • Occasional RD / Informal RD
  • Special types of RD

Chapter 2 The nature of RD activity in
developing countries cont
  • Heterogeneity and concentration
  • Developing countries are a heterogeneous group
  • Group A countries with consolidated RD systems
    and developed ST statistics systems ? no major
    difficulties in applying Frascati Manual
  • Group B countries with consolidated RD systems
    and less developed ST statistics systems ? need
    specific guidance on how to establish and
    consolidate sound RD statistics systems.
  • Group C countries with incipient RD systems ?
    need specific guidelines on how to start creating
    a regular RD statistical collection.
  • High degree of concentration (in group of
    countries, in particular institutions, in major
    projects, etc) ? lead to volatility and
    inconsistencies in statistics.

Chapter 3 RD expenditure
  • Use of secondary data from national budget
  • New sources of funds emerging
  • Discrepancy between voted and allocated budget
  • Budgetary commitments are not followed up
  • Mixing of budgetary records and annual reports
    from performing units
  • Definition of ST / RD budgets
  • Identifying RD components in the national budget
  • State-owned enterprises, university-owned
    companies and national scientific academies
  • Private universities
  • Fiscal year vs. calendar year
  • Information systems in government and higher
    education inadequate for statistics

Chapter 4 Internal and international mobility of
the RD workforce
  • Underestimation of researchers
  • Unpaid research
  • Informal research
  • Research outside of the normal work setting with
    external funding
  • Multiple part time positions not taken into
    account or undercounted
  • Masters research

Counting researchers
  • Overestimation of researchers
  • Counting the contract instead of the real effort
  • Multiple full-time research positions

Counting researchers
  • Special cases
  • FTE calculation gt1 and FTEgtHC
  • RD in times of crisis
  • Visiting researchers
  • Brain circulation

Counting researchers
  • Recommendations
  • Peer interviews of researchers
  • Include a module on barriers
  • Use secondary sources
  • Publication databases, both national and
  • STMIS and other databases of researchers
  • Databases and registers of clinical trials
  • Databases and registers of the main foreign
    donors involved in funding RD in the countries
  • University accreditation databases

Chapter 5 Specific fields of RD activity
  • Traditional knowledge
  • Clinical trials
  • Industrial activities
  • Other activities

Special types of RD - Traditional knowledge
  • Traditional knowledge (TK)
  • A cumulative body of knowledge, know-how,
    practices and representations maintained and
    developed by peoples with extended histories of
    interaction with the natural environment.
  • These sophisticated sets of understandings,
    interpretations and meanings are part and parcel
    of a cultural complex that encompasses language,
    naming and classification systems, resource use
    practices, ritual, spirituality and worldview.

Special types of RD - Traditional knowledge
  • Dichotomy between traditional and scientific
    knowledge systems
  • substantive grounds because of differences in
    the subject matter and characteristics of
    traditional and scientific knowledge
  • methodological and epistemological grounds
    because the two forms of knowledge employ
    different methods to investigate reality
  • contextual grounds because traditional
    knowledge is more deeply rooted in its

Special types of RD - Traditional knowledge
  • Links between traditional and scientific
    knowledge systems
  • Scientific approach to TK (in ethno-botany,
    ethno-pedology, ethno-forestry, ethno-veterinary
    medicine, ethno-ecology, etc).
  • The application of scientific methods to TK,
    converting it into a source of scientific
    information. (in biodiversity science or nature
    conservation traditional health and
  • Interaction between scientists and communities in
    participatory technology development

Special types of RD - Traditional knowledge
  • Measurement issues and recommendations
  • Establish the boundaries for TK (what qualify as
  • The activities establishing an interface between
    traditional knowledge and RD
  • Some fields of activities in TK are
    trans-disciplinary (e.g. ethno-botany), making
    them extremely difficult to map into the current
    classifications structure.

Special types of RD - Clinical trials
  • Clinical trials
  • (Can) involve a significant amount of RD
  • Need to be conducted on a wide population
  • Growth area for developing countries

Special types of RD - Clinical trials
  • Measurement of clinical trials
  • Registers of clinical trials available, e.g. WHO
    but also national
  • Funding often from abroad
  • Performance various possibilities
  • a local branch of the foreign main sponsor
  • universities and university hospitals
  • individual researchers
  • local medical clinics
  • locally registered PNPs
  • international PNPs

Special types of RD - Clinical trials
  • Measurement issues and recommendations
  • Occupation category of local staff
  • Medical doctors and other professionals with at
    least ISCED 5A degrees should be considered as
  • Nurses and other staff with qualifications below
    ISCED 5A should be accounted for as technicians
  • FTE calculation is important (often part-time)
  • Attribution of sector of performance must be done
    with care to avoid double counting

Special types of RD - Industrial activities
  • Reverse engineering understanding the structure
    and functioning of an object (in order to make a
    new device or program creates a similar object in
    a different way), copying it, or improving it.
  • Recommendation If reverse engineering is carried
    out in the framework of an RD project to develop
    a new (and different) product, it should be
    considered as RD.

Special types of RD - Other activities
  • Community development and other social projects
  • RD only in development and testing phase ?
    experimental development (most probably in the
    field of social sciences)
  • Religious research
  • part of humanities,
  • should be included in RD surveys.
  • ? This (religious research) will not be a

Chapter 6 Foreign and internationally controlled
  • Foreign antennas
  • Foreign companys RD labs
  • International organizations operating in the
  • Foreign universities based and conducting RD in
    campuses set up in the country

The foreign institutions sector
  • Recommendation
  • Create a foreign institutions (FI) sector as a
    separate sector of performance
  • Funding flowing from this sector to other sectors
    should be considered from Abroad as stated in
    the main body of the Frascati Manual
  • What is included?
  • Foreign antennas
  • International organizations
  • Foreign companys RD labs ? (remains in the
    business sector)
  • Foreign universities ? (remains in the HE sector)

The foreign institutions sector
  • The principal sector sub-classification
  • Business enterprises
  • Government
  • Higher Education
  • Private non-profit
  • International organizations

Chapter 7 Strategies for setting up ST
statistics systems in developing countries
  • Will be discussed in session 8.

Chapter 8 Thinking ahead Other products
beyond RD
  • Redefine the concepts of scientific and
    technological education and training at broadly
    the third level (STET), Scientific and
    technological services (STS) and ST activities
  • Better integrate education statistics with RD
  • Hands on guidance
  • Metadata
  • Model questionnaire

Thank you!
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