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Greece

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Title: Greece


1
Greece
2
Thursday September 11, 2008
  • Objective students will explain the 4 different
    government systems used in Ancient Greece.
  • Students will summarize Alexanders conquests and
    its influence on future cultures
  • Bell work Be ready for a quiz over Greek
    Geography, Athens and Sparta. When you turn in
    the quiz you will be responsible for being on
    page 117 in the textbook reviewing the 4
    government systems.

3
Monarchy
  • State ruled by a king
  • Rule is hereditary
  • Some rulers claim divine right
  • Practiced in Mycenae
  • Earliest form of government in ancient Greece
  • One person a king or queen holds the power and
    makes all political decisions. King has
    absolute power.

4
Aristocracy
  • State ruled by nobility
  • Rule is hereditary and based on land ownership
  • Social status and wealth support rulers
    authority
  • Practiced in Athens

5
Oligarchy
  • State ruled by a small group of citizens
  • Rule is based on wealth
  • Ruling group controls military
  • Practiced in Sparta

6
Tyranny
  • Tyrant rule one individual seizes power by
    force and rules single-handley.

Julius Caesar
7
Direct Democracy
  • State ruled by its citizens
  • Rule is based on citizenship
  • Majority rule decides vote
  • Practiced in Athens

8
Direct Democracy vs Representative Democracy
  • Athens direct democracy country is ruled by
    its citizens which make up the legislature
  • Rule is based upon citizenship
  • Majority rule (women denied voting rights)
  • United States representative democracy
    citizens elect legislators to represent them
  • Citizenship is based upon birth or naturalization
  • Women and men have equal rights

9
Athenian democracy resembled American democracy
in that
  1. women took no part in government
  2. all people had voting rights
  3. all citizens were allowed to take an active role
    in government
  4. states joined together to form a strong central
    government

10
Geography shapes Greek Life
  • The Sea
  • Sea connected them with other societies and
    helped with mixing cultures
  • Greece lacked natural resources such as timber,
    metals, and farmland
  • The Land
  • Mountains cover ¾ of land
  • Overland trade and political unity difficult
    because of mountains.

11
  • Government
  • Greeks could not form a single government because
    of terrain.
  • Development of individual communities with
    different types of government (City-states)

12
The Arts
  • The Classical Age of Greece Classical
    (beautiful simplicity, graceful balance in
    architecture) and Arts
  • Greek Drama and Theatre Greeks were first to
    write and perform plays, earliest were tragedies
    (hero struggles against fate and loses)
  • Greek Playwrights Sophocles wrote a tragedy
    called Oedipus Rex
  • Olympic Games religious festival to honor Zeus
    all individual events and decorated with olive
    wreathes

13
The Greek Mind
  • The Sophists
  • Philosophers translates to thinkers
  • Professional teachers were Sophists
  • Socrates
  • Asked questions of his students and had them
    clarify their thinking without giving answers
  • Plato
  • Student of Socrates. Wrote The Republic which
    discussed ideal society and government.
  • Aristotle
  • Power should rest with the middle classes.
  • Had a great impact on science. Becomes Alexander
    the Greats personal tutor

14
Other Important Philosophers
  • Heredotus father of history because he
    separated fact from legend and wrote it down
  • Pythagoras Leader in mathematics (theorem)
  • Hippocratees father of medicine (oath)

15
Athens
  • One of 2 dominant city-states.
  • Athenians stressed education and the arts for
    boys.
  • They studied Illiad, Odyssey, arithmetic,
    geometry, rhetoric, drawing and music.
  • Girls learned household duties from their mothers
    no education
  • At age 18, all boys were required to serve 2
    years in the military.
  • Marriage girls can marry at 15.

16
Sparta
  • The other dominant city-state
  • Military society all boys taken away at age 7
    to military school
  • Emphasis was placed on military training, and
    very little stress was placed on education (basic
    reading, writing skills necessary)
  • Marriage 19 years of age for women (children
    were stronger, meaning children are stronger)
  • Spartan women had more rights than Athenian
    women.
  • Government - 2 kings ruled jointly. Council of
    elders (all men over 60) acted as the supreme
    court
  • Sparta beats Athens in the Peloponnesian War

17
Macedonia Under Philip II
18
Alexander the Great
  • The Macedonians live North of Greece.
  • King Phillip of Macedonia conquers almost all of
    Greece. At the height of his power, he gets
    killed by his wife. His son Alexander takes over
    at age 20.

19
Alexander the Great356-323 B.C.E.
20
Alexander the Great
Alexander respected for courage and military
skill. He was educated by Aristotle. Campaigns
Conquered Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, and India.
He created the largest empire up to that time.
Dies at Age 33 of Malaria. His generals divided
his territory after his death, only for it to be
taken over by the Romans later.
21
Alexander the Greats Empire
22
Building Greek Cities in the East
23
The Breakup of Alexanders Empire
24
  • Why did Alexanders empire ultimately collapse?

25
Alexander the Great
  • Why can it be said that the Age of Alexander the
    Great marked the first truly international
    culture in history?

26
Student Notes
  • Alexander the Great son of Philip II of
    Macedonia. At age of 20 began king of Macedonia
    and conquered all of Greece. Before he was 33
    years old he conquered the Persian Empire and all
    of southwest Asia. Alexanders conquests ended
    the era of independent Greek city-states. New
    culture emerged a blend of Greek, Egyptian,
    Eastern customs.
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