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Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery

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Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery Sec.1.1: The Renaissance in Italy Introduction Late 15th century, Europe recovering form three crises 1. demographic 2 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10: Renaissance and Discovery


1
Chapter 10 Renaissance and Discovery
  • Sec.1.1 The Renaissance in Italy

2
Introduction
  • Late 15th century, Europe recovering form three
    crises
  • 1. demographic
  • 2. political
  • Great loss in population
  • Rulers imposing new political order
  • Patrons of government and education formed
  • Trading of ideas

3
The Renaissance in Italy (1375-1527)
  • Prototype of the modern world (Burckhardt)
  • Adopted a rational approach to reality
  • Transition from medieval to modern Europe
  • Characterized by growing national centralization
  • Organized commerce

4
Causes
  • Economics was primary cause
  • Northern Italy wealthy from the silk trade
  • New banking system
  • Money to support artists
  • Struggles between papacy
  • Governments became stronger
  • Italian cities built on ancient Roman ruins

5
Renaissance
  • More secular
  • City-life dominated
  • Classical past- Greece and Roman in years between
    500 and 476bc
  • Humanist- study of writings and ideals of the
    classical past (200bc)
  • Individualism behavior that emphasizes each
    person as contrasted with community

6
Cont.
  • Virtu essence of being a man by the display of
    courage in speech, art, politics, etc
  • Platonic Academy Medici (leading Florentine
    family scholars who initially studied the works
    of Plato in Greek leading members were Marsilio
    Ficino and Pico della Mirandola
  • Platonic concepts perfection of the circle

7
Cont.
  • Two events that coincide with the Renaissance
    death of Petrarch (father of humanism) and
    Giovanni Boccaccio
  • Decameron (Boccaccio) in 1375
  • Humanist culture spread
  • Creative expansion stopped when Spain looted Rome
    in 1527

8
Petrarch
9
Petrarch
  • created the model for modern Italian
  • Petrarch is credited for perfecting the sonnet,
    making it one of the most popular art forms to
    date
  • Petrarch was born in Arezzo the son of a
    merchant, and spent his early childhood in the
    village of Incisa, near Florence. His father, Ser
    Petracco, had been exiled from Florence in 1302
    by the Black Guelphs
  • father two children by a woman or women unknown
    to posterity. A son, Giovanni who died of the
    plague

10
Italian City-State
  • Merchant cities of late medieval times
  • Always had a cultural advantage over rest of
    Europe because it was located alone trade routes
  • Venice, Genoa, Pisa
  • Became powerful city-states

11
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12
Growth of City-States
  • Remained free from kings to expand
  • Assimilating nobility into new and old rich
  • Five major sates formed Milan, Florence, Venice,
    Papal, and Naples States
  • Competition for political power

13
Social Class and Conflict
  • Old vs. new rich for political power
  • Great peasant revolts 1/3 of populations had no
    wealth
  • Social anarchy from the Black Death

14
Despotism
  • Cosimo de Medici wealthy Florentine
  • Controlled the city from behind the scenes
  • Council elected from powerful guilds governed
    the city
  • Cosimo was able to keep councilors loyal to him
  • Lorenzo (Granson of Cosimo) ruled Florence from
    1478-1492)
  • Brother was assassinated in 1478 by a rival
    family (Pazzi) plotted with the pope
  • Lorenzo was cautious

15
Cont.
  • Despotism hired strongmen to prevent social
    conflict
  • Hazardous job
  • Most city-states est. resident embassies (1400s)
  • Became watchful eyes and ears

16
Humanism
  • Long debated some say birth of modern times,
    others philosophy stressed the dignity of human
    kind, others thought it was an educational
    program built on ancient rhetoric and scholarly
    works
  • First humanists were poets
  • Studied classic theologians of Greece and Latin
  • Period between classical civilization and a dark
    middle age
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