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CH 18 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation

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CH 18 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation Precipitation Areas Where it Rains windward side of mountain ranges storm areas, places where air rises and cools areas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CH 18 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation


1
CH 18 Moisture, Clouds, and Precipitation
2
The States of Water
  • Evaporation And Humidity
  • States of water
  • solid- ice, hail, snow
  • liquid- rain
  • gas- water vapor, steam

3
Lake Lure and the Water Cycle
Water evaporates from the Lake into the air.
In the air, the water vapor condenses into clouds.
As more evaporation occurs, more clouds form.
The clouds become saturated with water.
When the clouds can hold no more water, they
release it as precipitation.
4
Evaporation
  • Evaporation
  • water molecules with enough energy escape the
    water's surface
  • a cooling process

When you sweat, water evaporates from your body
and you are cooled.
5
Humidity
  • a measure of the amount of moisture in the air
  • specific humidity-the amount of water vapor
    actually present in the air
  • when specific humidity air's capacity for
    holding water vapor ? air is saturated

6
Humidity
  • Relative humidity
  • expressed as a
  • amount of water moisture the air presently holds
  • compared to the amount of water moisture it could
    hold at same temperature

100 almost raining!
Tropical Rainforest 80 or more
Desert 25 or less
Rutherfordton Avg 45 - 89
http//www.brainpop.com/science/weather/humidity/
7
How Does Condensation Happen?
  • Air Temperature Reaches the Dew Point
  • Dew Point - temperature at which saturation
    occurs
  • 4 Ways that air loses heat
  • contacting a colder surface
  • radiating heat
  • mixing with colder air
  • expanding when rises

8
  • Water needs to condense on something?
  • condensation nuclei
  • Salt
  • sulfate or nitrate particles (pollution)
  • puff of smoke contains millions of particles

http//explore.ecb.org/videos/VLC_media?P1VLC035
REFEREROTHER
9
F/A 18 forces condensation out of the air
approaching the speed of sound
10
Clouds
  • Clouds
  • high fogs, mist, or haze that form when air above
    the surface cools below its dew point
  • Three main cloud types
  • Cirrus
  • thin feathery or tufted high ice-crystal clouds
  • Stratus
  • low sheets or layers, form in stable air (moving
    upward slowly)
  • Cumulus
  • thick fleecy masses formed by vertically rising
    air currents

11
Cloud Types
  • Clouds are classified into a system that uses
    Latin words to describe the appearance of clouds
    as seen by an observer on the ground.
  • Latin Root Translation Example
  • cumulus heap cumulus
  • Stratus layer altostratus cirrus curl of
    hair cirrus nimbus rain cumulonimbus

12
Types of Clouds
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20
Cumulonimbus
21
Cumulonimbus w/wall cloud
22
Supercell Storms
http//dsc.discovery.com/videos/storm-chasers-scie
nce-of-storm-chasing/
23
http//www.weather.com/multimedia/videoplayer.html
?fromemailbcpid823503751bclid1716487196bctid
1735125381
24
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27
Forms of Precipitation
  • Rain liquid from stratus / cumulus clouds
  • Hail frozen clumps of ice crystals from
    cumulonimbus
  • Sleet raindrops that freeze on their way down
  • Snow solid particles from stratus / cumulus
    clouds

28
Rain
Kite Surfer Slams into Building http//www.weather
.com/multimedia/videoplayer.html?fromemailbcpid
823425597bclid16267856001bctid16749161001
House washes away http//www.weather.com/multimedi
a/videoplayer.html?fromemailbcpid823425597bcli
d16267856001bctid16749162001
Hurricane Ike at night http//www.weather.com/mult
imedia/videoplayer.html?fromemailbcpid823425597
bclid16267856001bctid16749157001
29
Snow
Thunder Snow http//www.weather.com/multimedia/vid
eoplayer.html?fromemailbcpid823425597bclid154
4345027bctid1543272495
Snowbound http//www.weather.com/multimedia/videop
layer.html?fromemailbcpid823503751bclid861985
479bctid877032736
Snowflake man http//www.weather.com/multimedia/vi
deoplayer.html?fromemailbcpid823503751bclid86
1985479bctid877032737
30
Sleet and Ice
Black Ice vs. Sleet http//www.weather.com/multime
dia/videoplayer.html?fromemailbcpid823503751bc
lid1716487196bctid1797103527
MSN Ice Storm in Midwest http//video.msn.com/vide
o.aspx/?mkten-USbrandmsnbcvid1a768a27-b151-4d
11-93e9-8af0158dd0e5wawsignin1.0
31
Hail
http//www.weather.com/multimedia/videoplayer.html
?fromemailbcpid823425597bclid1164702865bctid
33526267001
http//www.weather.com/multimedia/videoplayer.html
?fromemailbcpid823425597bclid1164702865bctid
32425805001
32
Where it Rains
33
Pacific Northwest
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35
Precipitation Areas
  • Where it Rains
  • windward side of mountain ranges
  • storm areas, places where air rises and cools
  • areas favored by global wind belts
  • where air converges and has to go up. around
    the Equator
  • Where it Doesnt
  • leeward side of mountain ranges
  • areas of sinking (warming) air
  • high pressure areas
  • where global wind belts diverge

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37
Acid Rain
  • Sulfate (SO2) and Nitrate (NO2)particles from
    pollution act as condensation nuclei
  • from burning of fossil fuels, volcanoes, and
    automobiles

38
Effects of Acid Rain
  • Avalanche Lake in Adirondack Park, New York
    State. Watersheds are especially vulnerable to
    acid rain
  • Vermont's maple trees are particularly
    susceptible to the effects of acid rain

39
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