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Foodborne Disease

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Title: Foodborne Disease


1
Foodborne Disease

2
  • CDC estimates that each year roughly 1 in 6
    Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick,
    128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of
    foodborne diseases.

3
Big 5
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    and the FDA Food Code lists five of the pathogens
    that have high infectivity and are easily
    transmitted to food by sick employees. 

4
  • Norovirus
  • Hepatitis A virus
  • Salmonella Typhi
  • Shigella 
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157H7 or other
    Enterohemorrhagic or Shiga toxin-producing E.
    coli.

5
Foodborne Disease
  • Food Infection

6
Foodborne Infection (Non-Spore forming Bacteria)
  • Do not form spores
  • Remain in vegetative state
  • Easily destroyed by cooking

7
Symptoms of some types of foodborne illness can
mimic those of other infections, or symptoms may
not appear at all.

8
Foodborne Infection
  • 47.8 million illnesses
  • 127,839 hospitalizations
  • 3,037 deaths

9
RememberPotentially hazardous foods
  • high protein
  • pH of 4.6
  • Aw .85 or higher

10
Foodborne Disease Prevention
Recommended Safe Internal Cooking Temperatures
Ground poultry 165F (74C)
Ground beef, veal, lamb, pork 160F (71C)
Roast beef or lamb 145F (63C)
Roast pork 160F (71C)
Ham, fresh 160F (71C)
Ham, precooked 140F (60C)
Roast chicken, turkey 180F (82C)
Chicken or turkey breast 170F (77C)
Stuffing 165F (74C)
11
Foodborne Disease caused by
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites
  • Fungi

12
  • All foodborne microbes and toxins enter the body
    through the gastrointestinal tract
  • First symptoms - Nausea, vomiting, abdominal
    cramps and diarrhea.

13
Growth Patterns
  • Remember
  • Lag phase
  • Log phase
  • Stationary phase
  • Death phase

14
Bacteria
  • 2 types of bacterial disease
  • Food Infections
  • Food Intoxications

15
Escherichia coli 0157H7
  • Facultative anaerobic bacteria
  • Intestine of warm blooded animals, especially
    cows
  • Foodborne infection or toxin-mediated infection
  • Low infectious dose

16
Symptoms and Onset Time
  • Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloody
    diarrhea, kidney failure, death
  • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
  • Onset time 12 to 72 hours
  • 1 to 3 days

17
Common Foods
  • Raw milk
  • Raw and undercooked beef
  • Improperly pasteurized milk apple cider
  • Lettuce
  • Spinach
  • Green onions
  • ( recent outbreaks)

18
Transmission
  • Contact with intestines of slaughter animals
  • Poor personal hygiene
  • Cross-contamination

19
  • Apples for juice from orchards where cattle or
    deer grazed.

20
In Da News Odwalla Apple Juice E. coli Outbreak
  • One child was dead
  • 65 individuals were confirmed infected
  • more than a dozen developed hemolytic uremic
    syndrome (HUS)

21
As a result
  • Odwalla began pasteurizing its juices. 
  • Warning labels placed on all unpasteurized fruit
    and vegetable juice containers.

22
Prevention
  • Cook ground beef to 160F
  • Handwashing
  • Prevent cross-contamination

23
  • Danger zone
  • Wash fruits and vegetables
  • Pasteurized milk and apple juice

24
E. Coli.In Da News
  • undercooked ground beef
  • 1993 Four children died after eating hamburgers
    at Jack-in-the-Box restaurant

25
  • 1996 -3 killed, 12,000 sicken in Japan, mostly
    school children.
  • Traced to alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, unpasteurized
    fruit juices.

26
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS)
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)-red blood cells
    destroyed, kidney failure, death.
  • "Hamburger Disease"

27
  • Antidiarrheal medicine not advisable.

28
Listeria monocytogenes
  • Bacterial infection
  • Facultative anaerobic
  • Grow at refrigerative temps
  • 41F or below

29
Symptoms and Onset Time
  • Flu like in healthy adults
  • Complications can be life threatening
  • Onset time 1 day-3 weeks

30
  • Fever, muscle aches gastrointestinal symptoms
    (nausea or diarrhea)
  • Can spread to the nervous system, (symptoms such
    as headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of
    balance or convulsions can occur.)

31
  • Sources are soil, water, humans, domestic wild
    animals fowl.
  • Illness is indefinite depending on treatment.
  • Can be fatal.

Can cause miscarriages death.
32
Common Foods
  • Raw meats, raw vegetables, seafood, dairy
    products (cheeses, ice cream)

33
  • Cold cuts, hot dogs, soft cheese, milk,
    refrigerated products eaten without further
    cooking.

34
  • Listeria grows well at low temperatures.

35
Transmission
  • Cross-contamination
  • Foods not cooked properly

36
Prevention
  • Cook foods thoroughly
  • Good food handling (timely use and rotation for
    hot dogs, hams, luncheon meats)

37
  • Avoid unpasteurized (raw) milk or foods made from
    unpasteurized milk.
  • Thoroughly cook raw food from animal
    sources. Wash raw vegetables before eating.

38
  • Wash hands, knives and cutting board after
    handling uncooked foods.
  • Consume perishable and ready-to-eat foods as soon
    as possible.

39
People at high risk, such as pregnant women and
persons with weakened immune systems
  • Do not eat hot dogs, luncheon meats or deli
    meats, unless they are reheated until steaming
    hot.

40
  • Do not eat soft cheeses such as feta, Brie and
    Camembert, blue-veine cheeses, or Mexican-style
    cheeses such as queso blanco, queso fresco,and
    Panela, unless they have labels that clearly
    state they are made from pastuerized milk.
  • Do not eat refrigerated pâtés or meat spreads.
  • Canned or shelf-stable pâtés and meat spreads may
    be eaten.

41
  • Do not eat refrigerated smoked seafood, unless it
    is contained in a cooked dish, such as a
    casserole.
  • Refrigerated smoked seafood, such as salmon,
    trout, whitefish, cod, tuna or mackerel, is most
    often labeled as "nova-style," "lox," "kippered,"
    "smoked" or "jerky."

42
Cantaloupe listeria outbreak most deadly since
1924
  • In Da News..

43
  • 33 people now confirmed dead, the listeria
    outbreak linked to cantaloupe from one Colorado
    farm is officially the deadliest foodborne
    illness outbreak in the United States since 1924.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

44
  • The outbreak comes from Rocky Ford-brand
    cantaloupes sold by Jensen Farms near Holly,
    Colo. The cantaloupes were recalled Sept. 14, and
    no melons under the recall are still on store
    shelves.

45
  • Federal health officials say they found listeria
    throughout the packing facility of the Colorado
    farm.

46
For instance.
  • Truck used to take waste cantaloupes to a nearby
    cattle farm was parked next to the open-air
    packing shed.
  • Because cattle are known carriers of the listeria
    bacteria, manure carried on the truck's wheels
    could have contaminated the area around the
    packing facility.

47
  • The outbreak is now one of deadliest of listeria
    in the USA.

48
  • The deadliest known was in 1985 when a
    Mexican-style soft cheese contaminated with
    listeria from Jalisco Products killed 18 adults
    and 10 newborns, as well as caused 20
    miscarriages.
  • It sickened 142 others.

49
Campylobacter jejuni
  • Major cause of foodborne infection
  • aerobic

50
  • Common among vacationers from abroad. (Travelers
    Diarrhea)
  • Most common form of food poisoning in the US.

51
Symptoms and Onset Time
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Onset 2-5 days
  • Symptoms last 2-7 days

52
Common Foods
  • Raw milk
  • Raw poultry
  • Raw meats

53
Transmission
  • Cross-contamination
  • Hands or surfaces or equipment

54
Prevention
  • Cook raw meats properly
  • Clean and sanitize food contact surfaces
  • Wash hands thoroughly

55
Campylobacter
  • Causes fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. 
  • The most commonly identified bacterial cause of
    diarrheal illness in the world. 

56
  • Lives in the intestines of healthy birds 
  • Eating undercooked chicken

57
  • Diarrhea bloody
  • nausea and vomiting.
  • Illness typically lasts 1 week.
  • Some persons who are infected with Campylobacter
    don't have any symptoms at all.

58
  • In persons with compromised immune systems,
    Campylobacter occasionally spreads to the
    bloodstream and causes a serious life-threatening
    infection.

59
  • Virtually all cases occur as isolated,
    sporadic events, not as a part of large
    outbreaks.

60
  • summer months
  • 100 die each year.

61
The 411 on Campylobacter
  • Spiral-shaped bacteria
  • Most human illness is caused by one species,
    called Campylobacter jejuni.

62
Treatment of Campylobacteriosis
  • Drink plenty of fluids as long as the diarrhea
    lasts.
  • Antibiotics such as erythromycin.

63
Long-term consequences
  • Recover completely within 2 to 5 days, although
    sometimes recovery can take up to 10 days.
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome

64
Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Also known as acute post-infective
    polyneuritis - is a disease of the peripheral
    nervous system, affecting the nerves to the arms,
    legs, head and trunk, but not the brain or spinal
    cord.

65
  • Low infectious dose (fewer than 500)
  • One drop of juice from raw chicken meat can
    infect a person.

66
  • Animals can also be infected.

67
How does food or water get contaminated ?
  • Chickens are infected with the organism but show
    no signs of illness.
  • Spread from bird to bird.

68
  • Data suggest Campylobacter can spread through a
    chicken flock in their drinking water.
  • Provide clean, chlorinated water sources

69
  • More than half of the raw chicken in the United
    States market has Campylobacter.
  • Present in the giblets and liver.

70
  • Unpasteurized milk can become contaminated if
    the cow has an infection with Campylobacter in
    her udder or the milk is contaminated with
    manure.

71
  • Surface water and mountain streams
  • Common in the developing world
  • Travelers to foreign countries

72
Prevention
  • Physicians report findings to the local health
    department.
  • When outbreaks occur, community education
    efforts can be directed at proper food handling
    techniques.

73
  • Make sure that persons with diarrhea, especially
    children, wash their hands.
  • Wash hands with soap after having contact with
    pet feces.

74
In Da News! Campylobacteriosis Outbreak
Associated with a Camping Trip to a Farm
  • In June 2005, King County Public Health was
    notified that a several children on a school trip
    had been ill with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and
    fever.

75
  • Campylobacter was isolated from the stool of
    the ill individual, and later in the week, two
    more cases of campylobacteriosis were reported.

76
Reason for infection?
  • No single source identified
  • Inadequate handwashing facilities
  • Inadequate handwashing supervision

77
  • Cook all poultry products thoroughly
  • Wash hands

78
  • Use separate cutting boards
  • Clean all cutting boards, countertops and
    utensils
  • Avoid consuming unpasteurized milk and untreated
    surface water.

79
Salmonella
  • Foodborne infection with bacteria called
    Salmonella.
  • Diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72
    hours after infection.
  • The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days, and most
    persons recover without treatment.

80
  • May spread from the intestines to the blood
    stream, and then to other body sites and can
    cause death unless the person is treated promptly
    with antibiotics.
  • Elderly, infants, and those with impaired immune
    systems are more likely to have a severe illness.

81
The 411
  • Salmonella is actually a group of bacteria that
    can cause diarrheal illness in humans.
  • They are microscopic living creatures that pass
    from the feces of people or animals to other
    people or other animals.

82
Treatment
  • Salmonella infections usually resolve in 5-7 days
    and often do not require treatment other than
    oral fluids.
  • Persons with severe diarrhea may require
    rehydration with intravenous fluids.

83
  • Antibiotics are not usually necessary unless the
    infection spreads from the intestines.
  • Some Salmonella bacteria have become resistant to
    antibiotics, largely as a result of the use of
    antibiotics to promote the growth of food
    animals.

84
Long term consequences
  • Persons with diarrhea usually recover completely,
    although it may be several months before their
    bowel habits are entirely normal.
  • A small number of persons with Salmonella develop
    pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes, and
    painful urination.

85
Reiter's syndrome
  • Can last for months or years, and can lead to
    chronic arthritis which is difficult to treat.
  • Antibiotic treatment does not make a difference
    in whether or not the person develops arthritis.

86
Transmission
  • Salmonella live in the intestinal tracts of
    humans and other animals, including birds.
  • Usually transmitted to humans by eating foods
    contaminated with animal feces.

87
  • Contaminated foods usually look and smell normal.
  • Contaminated foods are often of animal origin,
    such as beef, poultry, milk, or eggs, but any
    food, including vegetables, may become
    contaminated.

88
Prevention
  • Thorough cooking kills Salmonella.
  • Food may also become contaminated by the hands
    of an infected food handler who did not wash
    hands with soap after using the bathroom.

89
  • Salmonella may also be found in the feces of some
    pets, especially those with diarrhea, and people
    can become infected if they do not wash their
    hands after contact with pets or pet feces.
  • Reptiles, such as turtles, lizards, and snakes.

90
  • Many chicks and young birds carry Salmonella in
    their feces.
  • Wash hands immediately after handling a reptile
    or bird, even if the animal is healthy.
  • Assure that children wash their hands after
    handling a reptile or bird, or after touching its
    environment.

91
What we Know
  • Every year, approximately 40,000 cases of
    salmonellosis are reported in the United States.

92
  • It is estimated that approximately 400 persons
    die each year with acute salmonellosis.

93
Super Bowl
  • New England Patriots
  • vs.
  • Seattle Seahawks


94
  • The history of the Super Bowl dates back to
    January 15, 1967, with the playing of Super Bowl
    I.

95
  • Today, Super Bowl Sunday is often considered
    to be one of the biggest, if not "the" sporting
    event of the year.

96
  • And as you know, significant events are often
    marked by festive gatherings celebrating the "Big
    Game."

97
  • With Super Bowl XLVIII fast approaching, it is
    time to think about the most important element of
    your February soiree.

98
No, it is not the game It is not the halftime
show it is not even the ads. It is the food!
99
  • Second only to Thanksgiving, Super Bowl Sunday
    represents the highest day of food consumption in
    the United States.

100
  • In the game of football, players rely on
    multiple layers of protective padding and
    countless hours of training to ward off injury.

101
  • Whether you are a party host or attendee, you
    must take action to ensure food safety.
  • In lieu of protective gear, the USDA offers four
    basic food safety messages to be food safe and to
    prevent the incidence of foodborne illness.

102
Clean Avoid penalties for Illegal Use of Hands
  • In the everyday game of food safety, this
    penalty occurs when you or your guests prepare or
    handle food without first washing your hands.

103
  • Always wash hands with soap and warm water for
    20 seconds before and after handling food, and do
    not forget to also wash surfaces often.

104
Separate Avoid Encroachment and do not jump
offside
  • Keep raw meat and poultry separate from cooked
    foods.
  • If you slice raw veggies on the same cutting
    board that was used to cut chicken and other raw
    meats, you will get a flag for encroachment.

105
  • If you only have one cutting board, it should
    be Washed, Rinsed and Sanitized before and after
    the preparation of each food item.

106
Cook
  • Ensure your foods are in The Red Zone by using
    a food thermometer. Your chances of scoring will
    greatly increase when you use a thermometer to
    make certain the prepared food items are safely
    cooked.

107
  • Meat and poultry including chicken wings,
    sausages and hamburgers, should be cooked to a
    temperature high enough to kill harmful bacteria
    such as Salmonella and E. coli O157H7.

108
  • And remember, color is not a reliable
    indicator of safety-internal temperature is. Use
    a food thermometer to be sure meat and poultry
    are safely cooked.

109
  • Once your foods have reached The Red Zone of food
    safety, protect your team from the Danger Zone.
  • Do not leave foods sitting out for more than four
    hours at temperatures between 41 F and 135 F.

110
Chill
  • Your defense for good Pass Protection. In food
    safety, to ensure your guests continue to be food
    safe when they come back and blitz the table for
    seconds, keep cold foods cold and refrigerate
    leftovers promptly.

111
  • Your pass protection will block offensive
    bacteria from multiplying and running up the
    score.
  • The same rules of the Danger Zone apply for hot
    foods, too.
  • If food has been sitting out for more than four
    hours, do not eat it.

112
The Inn
Clean Separate Cook Chill

113
The Inn
  • Lab Monday!!!
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