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The Rise of Europe

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Title: The Rise of Europe


1
The Rise of Europe
  • Chapter 10
  • EQs What factors influenced the development of
    early Europe? How did Feudalism affect social
    identity? How did Europe become an extension of
    the classical Mediterranean?

2
Introduction











































  • 476 CERome fallsthe Western Roman Empire
    Romulus Augustulus was deposed and replaced by
    the barbarian Odoacer
  • By the end of the 5th century, Roman states had
    fallen into the hands of barbarian chiefsItaly
    to the Ostrogoths, Spain to the Visigoths, Gaul
    to the Franks, North Africa to the Vandals and
    England to the Angles and Saxons
  • Barbarians were now the masters of Europe BUT
    they were willing to learn from those who they
    conquered (IMPORTANT)this brings to their
    peoples acculturation, particularly, by
    religionRoman culture remained, just under the
    control of different masters
  • The early Middle Ages (476-1000) saw the birth of
    European societyit was a time of experimentation
    of new political, economic and religious
    ideasand it was a time in which Europe faced a
    challenge from the EastISLAM!

3
Islam Comethand Vikings Raid!
  • Islam was knocking on Europes doorstep by the
    beginning of the 8th centuryMuslim conquerors
    had taken control of most of north Africa and
    were making their way across the Straits of
    Gibraltar into Spain, while the Byzantines
    continued to hold off Umayyad and Abbasid
    incursions
  • The Catholic church took it upon itself to
    declare the Islamic hoard as an unholy barbarian
    forced and charged all rulers of Europe with the
    mission of defending Europe in the name of the
    faith.
  • In 732 CE a Christian army led by Charles the
    Hammer Martel defeated the Arab armies at
    Poitiers (Tours) in central France, ending for
    the time, any further Muslim invasions into
    EuropeMeanwhile, from the north, Viking kingdoms
    remained largely heathen and continually raided
    European states in England and Germany
  • As a result of these events, political and
    cultural development were hindered, as was
    tradeonly those in the religious orders
    developed and maintain intellectual ideas

4
The Rise and POWER of the Church
  • The Christian (Catholic) church became the center
    of Europeit is said that nature abhors a vacuum
    and the vacuum left by the loss of Roman rule was
    filled by the local bishops and cathedrals of the
    Catholic churchthe cathedral became the center
    of life in cities and villagesthe bishop was the
    highest authority and, in reality, only the
    church at the time had any form of hierarchical
    political structure or intelligentsia
  • Monasticism also became a central feature and was
    the purest, unspoiled form of the Christian
    faithit represented the churchs idea of the
    idea life and created the notion that the clergy
    was superior
  • In addition, the bishop of Rome (the Pope), took
    the opportunity to claim superiority over the
    churchas early as the 6th century, the Pope was
    taking advantage of political weakness to
    establish the doctrine of papal primacy,
    allowing the holy father to be the sole authority
    in church doctrine, church legal matters and
    church practicesit also became interpreted that
    the Pope had authority over secular rulers,
    forming the first religious empire in world
    history

5
The Holy Roman Empire
  • With absence of central political authority in
    the secular state, the question of who is going
    to be the one to control the many became the
    chief political issue in Medieval Europe
  • Only one king was able to take advantage of this
    disarray, Charlemagne (grandson of Charles the
    Hammer Martel) of the Frankshe made alliances
    with religious leaders and proved to them that he
    was their protectoron Christmas Day, 800 CE,
    Pope Leo III crowned him Holy Roman Emperor,
    based in Germany, and what would be a revival of
    the old Roman Empire in the West of Europe
  • Charlemagne created a bureaucracy of counts
    selected from local rulers within his
    kingdomunfortunately, though they supported the
    king/emperor, they were never fully loyal (more
    in a moment)Charlemagne established his capital
    at Aachen, creating a center or wealth and
    learning unparalleled in Europethe first of
    Europes many Renaissances started here.
  • Charlemagne died in 814 CE and his empire
    literally died with himhis son Louis the Pious
    held the empire together until his death, upon
    which it was divided equally among his 3
    sonscounts and regional rulers broke away and
    began fighting each other for supremacy, while
    the papacy played off relationships with each
    minor kingdom

6
The Feudal/Manorial System
  • The results of constant attacks by outside nomads
    (Vikings, Magyars and Muslims) forced the local
    populations to become ever more dependent on
    local strongmen to protect thementer the
    invention of feudal society, the social,
    political, military and economic system that
    responded to these concerns
  • At the top you find the king or regional prince
    (those left over from Holy Roman Empire) who held
    the highest virtues of mutual trust and fidelity
  • Next, the nobles, barons or lords (vassals)
    represented the political and economic
    backbonethey supported the king by swearing
    allegiance (fealty) to his rule and by providing
    military protection to the greater statein
    return, the king promised to uphold the lords
    social position
  • That is where the knights come in, they were the
    hired protection, paid for by the fees provided
    by the lords with sworn allegiance to king
    (greater lord)
  • And the majority of people in Feudal Medieval
    Europe were serfs (or freemen)they provided the
    labor for the lord in return for protection on
    their manorthey also did have recognized legal
    rights upon their swearing of allegiance to a
    landlordthey WERE NOT slaves nor could they be
    bought or soldthey owned their houses and passed
    property rights on as inheritancefreemen were
    those that either escaped this system or served
    as merchant traders

7
Early Economic, Social and Political Impacts
  • In the 9th and 10th centuries, new agricultural
    techniques emerged the moldboard plow (better
    plows meant deeper digging of soil and opening of
    new farm land), the 3 field system and new horse
    implements
  • As nomadic incursions ceased, trade opened
    uptowns emerged as regional trade centers and a
    new merchant class developed (one that would come
    to dominate Europe in the coming centuries)
  • Population increased as did the need for food as
    did the need for labornew areas were settled and
    new manors were built to fill food needs
  • In the area of politics, new relationships
    evolvedthe elites consolidated their power and
    ruled greater territory, establishing
    bureaucratic councils comprised of several
    vassals and their states
  • Political divisions developed, as vassals
    demanded rights, separate form those of church
    authoritythe first parliaments were created by
    edicts in Spain and England, mainly comprised of
    nobles, church leaders and urban leadersserfs
    were not represented, but their rights remained

8
Expansion and Reform
  • Changes brought desire for greater kingdomsin
    Germany, local rulers expanded eastward into
    still barbarian territory
  • In Spain, the Reconquista (11th C) involved the
    unity of several small Spanish kingdoms against
    the Muslim Moorsfull expulsion of Muslims was
    not complete until 1492
  • And the Crusades started in 1095 under Pope Urban
    IIwarriors were promised complete absolution for
    their service as did promises of great riches and
    wealth from Arab (Abbasid) landsbut all the
    Crusades eventually did was to create 1)
    competition within European kingdoms and 2) break
    up a vital trading empire (Byzantine)
  • In the areas of religion, several events
    occurredseveral monastic orders devoted to
    keeping the church poor were formed in the 13th
    century (St. Francis and St. Clare of Assisi)
  • Pope Gregory VII also attempted to rid the church
    of ties to feudal stateshe declared priests
    should not marry to keep them pure and he fought
    for the removal of investiture (state appointment
    of religious leaders rather than by the church)
    thus declaring the church superior to the state
    (more this week)

9
The High Middle Ages
  • Post-Classical Western Civ reached its high point
    in the 12th and 13th centuries as tensions
    created further changes in politics, religion,
    intellectual, social and economic life
  • Religion and philosophy became one in the
    samechurch members had become engaged in
    resurfacing the great thinking of Greek
    philosophersabsolute faith in Gods word was
    stressed, but attached human reason to the
    understanding of religion and the natural order
  • Thinkers like Peter Abelard stressed
    logic/skepticism in some church doctrines (Yes
    and No)his rival St. Bernard of Clairvaux
    challenged these positions stressing a mystical
    union with God and that reasoning was dangerous
  • These debates literally opened up entire schools
    (universities) dedicated to philosophy, theology
    and literaturethey largely produced men bound
    for religious service or work in the bureaucracy
    but also produced a thirst for knowledge of past
    and present civilizations
  • Thinkers took advantage of these schoolThomas
    Aquinas taught at the U of Paris that faith comes
    first but reason alone could help determine
    natural order, morality and the nature of God
    (Summas)Roger Bacon did advanced work in optic
    sciences (unheard during this period)
  • Christian devotion also ran deep during this
    period, as cities led to development of lay
    groups devoted to spiritualityeven cults of the
    Virgin Mary and particular saints emerged to make
    a human connection with God all the while
    promoting magic and Pagan rituals that blended
    into Christian practices

10
Rural Life and Economic Changes
  • Agricultural innovations allowed many peasants to
    go out on their own and shake free of the
    manornobles still served the state with military
    services but began dabbling in tradethese
    ventures brought on higher taxes, which, in turn,
    brought on tensions between serfs and lordsin
    general, peasants gained while lords lost
  • Trade expandedItalian business people created
    banking and monetary systems became prevalent (to
    the dismay of the church) and Italians became the
    merchants of long distance trade (via the
    Mediterranean)in the Baltic, Germanic and
    Scandinavian states formed the Hanseatic League
    to encourage trade
  • Individuals emerged as merchant leaders, like
    Jacques Coeur, who founded trading companies,
    mainly in Italy and dealt with Arab traders in
    the Middle Eastthis was all made possible by the
    weakness of government who allowed merchants to
    gain poweraside from taxation and borrowing,
    merchants were left alone by kings or local
    rulers
  • Commercial and artisan guilds (groups of similar
    occupations) developed in urban areasthese
    unions essentially protected their groups,
    regulated apprenticeships, maintained product
    quality and discouraged new innovations of
    products (ie. dont think of a new way to do
    it)their motives were NOT about profitguilds
    also played a large role in urban politics and
    society, giving their members a say in local
    affairs (or even parliaments)
  • Manufacturing areas, however, were still behind
    their eastern counterpartsonly in clock making
    did Europeans gain any technical ground

11
Women in Medieval European Times
  • As always, as society becomes more complex, the
    role of women disintegrates
  • A womans role as a domestic in the family
    remained important, and, there was always
    becoming a nun if you didnt want to be a
    housewife
  • Religiously, the veneration of the Virgin Mary
    gave women greater prestige in society to
    counterbalance a previous emphasis of women as
    sinners (think about Eve and the apple)
  • Women still had higher status than in the Muslim
    societies of the time and could actually attend
    worship services (though not lead them)
  • Urban women played roles in guilds and in
    commerce, helping to improve their statusby the
    end of the Middle Ages, the stressing of women as
    assistants to and comforters of men became
    prevalent

12
The Decline of the Medieval Synthesis
  • Several key events represented a disruption in
    Western Post-Classical civilization in the late
    14th century and are considered the ending events
    of the Middle Ages
  • At the beginning of the 1300s, France and England
    decided to fight over some territory and oh the
    war lasted almost a 100 yearsthe French won, but
    this proved the general weakness of European
    states in the areas of military and defense AND
    of their political and social institutions
    (namely feudalism)
  • At the same time, all open land in Europe proper
    was now claimed, and famines caused population
    levels to decline
  • And then there was the PLAGUE!!! The Black Death
    arrived in 1348 wiping out 1/3 of the population
    and further challenging Europes social and
    political structureit would take almost 2
    centuries for Europe to fully recover thanks in
    part to its next emerging erathe RENAISSANCE.

13
This week
  • Tuesday Change Analysis
  • Wednesday NO SCHOOL
  • Thursday Start DBQ
  • Friday Test (MC Only) and continue DBQ
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