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Fundamentals of early childhood education


Fundamentals of early childhood education Ages and Stages Week 1 - 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamentals of early childhood education

Fundamentals of early childhood education
  • Ages and Stages
  • Week 1 - 2

Just the Basics
  • Since the early childhood age group is typically
    focused from age 3 to grade 3, those ages will be
    specifically targeted in this course.

Two-four years
Motor Skills Communication Social Skills
Jumps in place and from low objects. Walks on tiptoes. Stands on one foot. Throws objects overhand. Uses scissors. Learns to copy different shapes. Tries to draw human body. Strings beads Pours liquids from a pitcher. Undresses self with supervision. Can put on shoes (attempts to tie). 2-3 years old 50-75 intelligible speech Can make 3-4 word sentences. Begins to use plurals and pronouns. Vocabulary increased to nearly 1000 words. Follows two step commands Able to determine big/little Increased cognition able to answer where and what questions. Relates experiences from the past regularly. Begins understanding long, complex sentences. Begins to understand prepositions (on, under, behind). Temper tantrums may continue, but should decrease at each age. Routine behavior is established. Has limited knowledge of time Begins to questions difference in sexes. Tangible fears increase. Begins to separate from parents more easily. Begins to learn rules and by age 4 can begin to conform well to them
Two-Four Years
Communication Play Safety
3-4 years old Speech is 75-100 intelligible. Can make sentences of 4 to 6 word combinations. Knows first and last name. Begins to read pictures and is able to tell stories based on pictures. Answers questions how much and how many? Can understand prepositions (on, under, front and back). Uses past tense. Can identify people in pictures. Can answer more abstract questions. Comprehends sleepy and hungry. Learns through play. Uses play to express self. Can engage in cooperative play. Learns sharing by age 3-4 y ears. Enjoys dramatic play, stories being read, showing accomplishments, making up stories, and relaying fantasies. Riding toys and tricycles enjoys outside activities. Building with blocks. Enjoys water play. Enjoys coloring, cutting, scribbling, painting, and finger painting. Requires a car seat installed properly (check with state and local law enforcement). Puts object in mouth. Loves to explore without fear. Experiments with independence. Cannot always differentiate harmful substances. Cannot always differentiate actions that could be dangerous.
Two-four years
Eating Pattern Self-Help Sleep Pattern
Eats three meals a day (breakfast, lunch, and dinner) plus snacks. Should be able to feed self well using a fork or spoon. Three-four years old can serve self at table. These children should being seeing the dentist. By 2 ½-3 years (30-36 months) begins to take responsibility of potty training. Will have occasional accidents. By age 4 will begin to be more independent in toileting. Begins to establish night control. Can undress self and may need supervision. Can put on shoes and may attempt to tie. Should sleep 10-12 hours per night. Generally takes one nap during the day.
Motor Skills
  • At this age children should be able to jump and
    they should be able to jump from low objects
    including a stool, balance beam, or step.
  • These children should be able to walk on tiptoes,
    stand on one foot and can throw overhand. These
    be observed through outside play.
  • During art these children will show their ability
    to use scissors. They should show they can hold
    them properly at 3 and 4. At 2, they may need
    more assistance with holding scissors initially.
  • Also during art these children will sow their
    ability to copy and create circles, squares,
    triangles and crosses. These different shapes
    show different cognitive skills. It will also
    show writing preparation.
  • Tries to draw a human body. These children will
    start drawing people.

Motor Skills
  • At this age children increase their fine motor
    skills. They will become increasingly better with
    hand-eye coordination as well. With such skills
    they will be able to string beads. They may need
    to start with large items and become increasingly
  • Undressing, zipping, tying, buttoning and
    unbuttoning requires fine motor skills. As
    children develop these skills, along with gross
    motor skills needed for dressing and undressing,
    they become more independent and are able to
    dress and undress themselves. Periodically they
    may need supervision.

Motor Skills
  • Drawing and Writing
  • Drawing shapes and writing letters is directly
  • Circle- O, G, C, Q, U, S, J
  • Square- E, R, T, I, P, D, F, H, K, L, Z, B
  • Triangle- A, V, M, W, Y, X, N
  • Some letters cross the hemispheres of the brain
    and may be more difficult for children to write.
    As children mature they become proficient with
    this as their cognitive development improves.

Motor Skills
  • Art and Development
  • Children at this age will start to draw the human
    body. They will start to draw from the head
    outward. They will draw arms and legs from the
    head. As they get older they will draw the head
    and the body and the appendages will come from
    the body. They will longer see people from the
    head outward, but as they truly appear. They will
    start to draw more details and add flourish to
    their pictures as they continue to develop.

Social Skills
  • At 2 temper tantrums are more frequent. As the
    children get older these should become less
    frequent. Children should be learning more
    appropriate behaviors and more appropriate ways
    to express themselves.
  • Children at this age begin to show better and
    more social skills at home, in school and through
    play. Inappropriate social skills should be
    addressed and minimized as they get older to help
    them create a base of knowledge to measure good,
    bad, right and wrong.

  • Children from 18 months to 36 months should be
    experiencing a language explosion. They should be
    learning so many new words and having so many new
  • This is the time where children explore most,
    they also explore with language. Correcting
    improper language is important at this age, but
    not the most critical. Teaching these children
    new ways to say the same concept and helping them
    have new experiences.

Four-Six Years Old
Motor Control Communication Social Skills
Four Can jump and climb Can walk stairs without using railing. Can throw a ball overhand. Copies shapes. Five-Six Skips alternating feet. Can walk on heels or toes. Able to hop well. Form most letters correctly. Draws pictures recognizably. Can catch a bounced ball. Four Vocabulary 1500 words. Names colors. Names objects in succession (at least three). Selects longest of three lines. Counts to five. Begins to learn number concepts. Understands opposites. Understands simple explanations. Negativism decreases. Recognizes parts of the body. Knows their age. May have private speech, imaginary friends, more imaginative play. Exaggerates, boasts, and tattles! May tend to be selfish, aggressive, and impatient. Able to accept directions from adult other than a parent. Views death as reversible.
Four-six years old
Communication Play Safety
Five-Six Vocabulary 2100 words. Repeats sentence of 10 syllables. More talkative. Knows the days of the week. Can count 10 objects. Begins to learn names of coins. Communicates in properly sequenced sentences. Uses play to learn, express self and work out fears. Plays with peers. Enjoys doing outdoor activities. Plays simple board games. Marches and sings. Enjoys rhymes and riddles. Enjoys pretending and imaginative play. Enjoys doing simple arts and crafts activities. Books and stories are enjoyable. Devises new games with rules. Still requires car seat or booster seat with shoulder restraints. (For more information please check with local and state law enforcement). Has trouble differentiating between reality ad fantasy. Begins to determine actions that are dangerous. Explores independence. Cannot be left alone near water. Needs to wear properly fitted helmet during bicycle and scooter riding or skateboarding and skating. Safety education begins fire, stranger, water.
Four-Six Years Old
Physical Needs/Eating Pattern Self-Help/Hygiene Sleep Pattern
These children should have a full set of primary teeth (20). These children should be going to the dentist regularly. Should be eating three meals a days plus snacks. Toileting needs should be completely independent at this point. Children should also be able to control nighttime bathroom needs. Can brush their own teeth. An button and zip their own clothes. Can dress with very little supervision. Should be sleeping 10-12 hours per night.
Study Moment
  • Six different charts have been provided. Please
    take a few extra moments to become more familiar
    with whats being presented. You have see this

  • Toileting is a major issue that is addressed more
    adamantly at this age.
  • Parents should be prepared to assist these young
    children with night time toileting issues.
    Children grow at different rates and while most
    may be completely and fully independent at night,
    there will be others that need additional
    assistance with this. There are several methods
    that medical professionals and educators have
    developed to assist parents with this issue.
  • Night control issues with children between 2-6
    years old is very important and very common.
    Parents may be increasingly more concerned and
    compare children, whether it is their or with
    others in their class or age group.
  • The most overwhelming concern of parents is that
    their child is not developing typically and
    similar to their children in their class.
    Reassurance to these parents/knowledge of
    techniques that may help is helpful for these

  • At this age it is important to correct
    inappropriate language, improper grammar, and to
    continue to build language through experiences.
  • These children are still learning to read and
    environmental print will still be important for
    this age group. It helps to develop language and
    build concepts for these children with language.

Social Skills
  • This age group definitely is more social and able
    to divide off in groups.
  • This is when cliques and close friends will
    develop among girls and boys. Children may
    differentiate more between the children they like
    and dont like.
  • Children may begin to tease one another and judge
    what they look and what others look like.
  • Children will be very involved with fitting into
    certain groups (where they believe that they
    fit). Exclusion is also common this age. It is
    very important to help every child know that they
    are wonderful made and they each have a purpose
    and call.
  • As children develop socially it is important to
    guide their development spiritually, teaching
    them biblical concepts that will help them love
    God and others.

  • At what age are young children developing
    language and going through a language explosion
    (4 points)?
  • For children ages two-four, what is the major
    social skill issue that they have (4 points)?
  • What is the age group focus of early childhood
    education (5 points)?
  • What scripture can be used to reassure children
    that they are create by God and that they are
    wonderfully made (10 points)?
  • At what age is cooperative play beginning and
    very important for development (5 points)?
  • What is a major issue with cooperative play and
    young children (7 points)?
  • Explain the communication and socialization
    skills that a children two-four years old should
    be engaging in (20 points).
  • What are some of the differences in play for
    children two-four age group and four-six age
    group (20 points)?

  • Write a 2-3 page paper on the development of
    children ages 3-6 on nighttime control. This can
    be found in medical, educational, or
    psychological resources. Please be certain to
    cite any resources used. This paper, like with
    all papers written in this class, should be
    double spaced, with 12-pt font of New Times Roman
    or similar. Likewise, you may use any writing
    style you choose (e.g., MLA APA Turabian).
    However, you must stick to the rules of that
    style. You may not interchange between different