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Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology Infancy and Childhood – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
  • Infancy and Childhood

2
Key Debates in Developmental Psychology
  • Continuity vs. Stages.
  • Stability vs. Change.
  • Nature vs. Nurture.

3
Heredity vs. Environment
Nature
vs.
Nurture
4
Nature Versus Nurture
  • While going through this unit it should always be
    in the back of your head
  • Are you who you are because of
  • The way you were born - Nature.
  • The way you were raised - Nurture.

5
The Nature Argument (is sometimes compelling)
This guy will never be.
This guy!!!
Why does Brad Pitt look the way he does?
6
Genes Our Biological Units of Heredity
7
Genes Their Location and Composition
In the nucleus of most cells we have 46
chromosomes
8
Except sperm and eggs, which have 23.
9
Prenatal Development
  • Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the
    release of about 200 million sperm.
  • The sperm seeks out the egg and attempts to
    penetrate the eggs surface.

10
  • Once the sperm penetrates the egg - we have a
    fertilized egg called

The Zygote
The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts
about 14 days and consists of rapid cell division.
11
Zygotes
  • Less than half of all zygotes survive the first
    two weeks.
  • About 10 days after conception, the zygote will
    attach itself to the uterine wall.
  • Cells begin to differentiate (or specialize).
    This process is directed by our genes.

12
After two weeks, the zygote develops into an
Embryo
  • Lasts about 6 weeks.
  • Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to
    develop.

13
Fetus
  • By nine weeks we have a
  • By about the 6th month, the stomach and other
    organs have formed enough to survive outside of
    mother.
  • At this time the baby can hear (and recognize)
    sounds and respond to light.

14
Teratogens harmful agents to the prenatal
environment.
15
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children
    caused by a pregnant womens heavy drinking.
  • Severe cases include facial disproportions and
    cognitive abnormalities.

16
How do brain and motor skills develop?
  • Good News
  • While in the womb, you produce almost ¼ million
    brain cells per minute.
  • Bad News
  • That is basically all you are ever going to
    develop.

17
The Newborn
  • Within an hour a newborn will turn its head to
    watch a picture of a human face.
  • They will turn their heads towards human voices.
  • Taste preference toward sugar and mothers milk.

18
Reflexes
  • Inborn automatic responses
  • Rooting (turning head toward touch)
  • Sucking
  • Grasping
  • Moro
  • Babinski

19
Temperament
  • A childs characteristic emotional excitability
    is evident at a very young age.
  • Like shyness or being outgoing.
  • Tends to be stable over time.

20
Brain Development in Newborns
  • Cells in the brain begin to work more efficiently
    - forming more complex neural networks.

21
Maturation
  • Automatic, orderly, sequential process of
    physical and mental development.
  • To a certain extent we all maturate similarly,
    but the time can vary depending on the person.

22
Motor Development
  • Sequence is the same - but once again timing
    varies.
  • First we learn to roll over, then sit up
    unsupported, crawl, walk etc

23
Walking
  • Walking - in US 25 learn by 11 months, 50
    within a week of 1st birthday, 90 by 15 months.
  • Varies by culture - if the culture emphasizes
    walking then babies can walk at younger ages
    (NURTURE).
  • But identical twins tend to learn to walk at
    nearly the same time (NATURE).

24
Toilet Training
  • The baby needs the physical maturation before
    toilet training can take place.
  • They cant do it if they cant control those
    muscles.

25
More Developmental Patterns
  • Growth Cycles - patterns of development in which
    some areas develop more rapidly and some more
    slowly. (Girls have more orderly and stable
    growth cycles).
  • Critical Periods - specific time after birth that
    is the only time when a particular skill can
    begin to develop (ex. Languages).
  • Development within a species is typically orderly
    and specific.

26
Developmental Psychology
  • Studies physical, cognitive and social changes
    throughout life.
  • Jean Piaget (famous child psychologist).
  • Kids think and learn differently than adults.
  • Cognition mental activities associated with
    thinking.

27
Schemas
Right now in your head, picture a model.
  • Children view the world through schemas (as do
    adults for the most part).
  • Schemas (concepts or mental frameworks) are ways
    we interpret the world around us.
  • It is basically what you picture in your head
    when you think of anything.

These 3 probably fit into your concept (schema)
of a model.
But does this one?
28
Assimilation
If I teach a 3 year old that an animal with 4
legs and a tail is a dog.
  • Incorporating new experiences into existing
    schemas.

What schema would you assimilate this into?
Or this?
What would he call this?
29
Accommodation
  • Adapting current schemas to incorporate new
    information.

If I tell someone from the mid-west to picture
their schema of N.Y. they may talk about the bad
areas.
But if I showed them other areas of N.Y., they
would be forced to accommodate (change) their
schema to incorporate their new information.
30
Piagets 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
  • 1.) Sensorimotor Stage
  • Experience the world through our senses.
  • Object Permanence develops around 8 months of
    age.
  • Birth to about 2.

31
2.) Preoperational Stage
  • 2 6 or 7 years old.
  • Begin to use language to represent objects and
    ideas.
  • Ability to think in symbols.
  • Non-logical, magical thinking.
  • Egocentrism the inability to take on anothers
    point of view (reversibility).
  • Do NOT understand concepts of conservation.

32
Conservation
  • The idea that properties such as mass, volume,
    and number remain the same despite changes in the
    appearance of the object.

33
3.) Concrete Operational Stage
  • 6 or 7 to about 11.
  • CAN demonstrate concept of conservation.
  • Learn to think logically.

34
4.) Formal Operational Stage (12 and up)
  • What would the world look like with no light?
  • Picture god.
  • What are the best strategies for playing chess?
  • Abstract reasoning.
  • Able to form strategies about things they may not
    have experienced.
  • Hypothesis testing.

35
Criticisms of Piaget
  • Some say he underestimates the abilities of
    children.
  • Many believe that children do not learn in stages
    but rather a gradual continuous growth pattern.

36
Social Development
  • Stranger Anxiety - The fear of strangers that
    infants commonly display, beginning by about 8
    months of age.

37
Attachment
  • The most important social construct an infant
    must develop is ? attachment (a bond with a
    caregiver).
  • Body contact, familiarity and responsiveness all
    are important for attachment.

38
Origins of Attachment
  • For many animals there is a critical period
    shortly after birth when an organisms exposure
    to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper
    development.
  • Those who are deprived of touch have trouble
    forming attachment when they are older.

39
Body Contact
  • Harry Harlow and his monkeys.
  • He showed that monkeys needed touch or body
    contact to form attachment.

40
Familiarity
  • Imprinting is the process by which certain
    animals form attachments during a critical period
    very early in life.
  • Discovered by Konrad Lorenz.

41
Responsive Parenting
  • Mary Ainsworths Strange Situation study.
  • Types of attachment
  • Insecure (child is clingy).
  • Secure (child explores).

42
Parenting Patterns
  • Parenting styles have been shown to have a
    positive effect on a childs self-concept.

Three types of parenting styles
43
Authoritarian Parents
  • Impose rules and expect obedience.
  • Why, because I said so!!!!

44
Permissive Parents
  • Parents submit to their childrens desires, make
    few demands and use little punishment.

45
Authoritative Parents
  • Parents are both demanding and responsive.
  • Exert control by setting rules, but explain the
    reasoning behind the rules.
  • They encourage open discussion.
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