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Organic Chemistry

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Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Branched Chains When an alkane chain gets another hydrocarbon group substituted onto it Branches: sidechains Branched Chains C C ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Organic Chemistry


1
Organic Chemistry
2
Organic Chemistry
  • The chemistry of carbon compounds
  • Sometimes called carbon chemistry

3
Organic Chemistry
  • The backbone element in the molecules of all
    living things is carbon

4
Carbon Chemistry
  • Carbon is one of the only elements that can form
    long chains
  • Carbon can form 4 covalent bonds

5
Organic Chemistry
  • Carbon forms covalent bonds with hydrogen,
    oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and the
    halogens

6
Hydrocarbons
7
Hydrocarbons
  • Compounds whose molecular structures contain only
    carbon hydrogen

8
Hydrocarbons
  • CH4 C5H10
  • C3H8 C18H36
  • C6H6 CxH2y

9
Nomenclature
  • Naming compounds
  • Rules made by IUPAC
  • International Union of Pure Applied Chemistry

10
Nomenclature
  • Prefix Indicates of carbons in the group
  • Suffix Indicates the type of organic compd

11
Organic Prefixes
  • 1 meth- 6 hex-
  • 2 eth- 7 hept-
  • 3 prop- 8 oct-
  • 4 but- 9 non-
  • 5 pent- 10 dec-

12
Organic Suffixes
  • -ane Sat hydrocarbon
  • -ene DB hydrocarbon
  • -yne TB hydrocarbon
  • -ol Alcohol
  • -one Ketone etc

13
Alkanes
14
Alkanes
  • Hydrocarbons containing only single covalent bonds

15
Alkanes
  • All hydrocarbons with no multiple bonds end with
    the suffix -ane
  • Prefix Alk- any length carbon chain

16
Alkanes
1 methane 6 hexane 2 ethane 7 heptane 3
propane 8 octane 4 butane 9 nonane 5
pentane 10 decane
17
Drill
  • Name give the molecular formula for alkanes
    with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 carbons

18
Alkane Chemical Formula
  • CnH2n2

19
Name each of the following C5H12 C3H8 C8H18
20
Saturated Hydrocarbon
  • A hydrocarbon with the maximum number of
    hydrogens possible

21
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
  • A hydrocarbon with less than the maximum number
    of hydrogens possible

22
Formula Writing
  • Molecular Formula
  • C4H10

23
Formula Writing
  • Condensed structural formula, C-C C-H bonds
    understood
  • CH3CH2CH2CH3

24
Formula Writing
  • Condensed structural formula, only C-H bonds
    understood
  • CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3

25
Formula Writing
  • Condensed structural formula, bonds understood
    repeats in ()
  • CH3(CH2)2CH3

26
Formula Writing
  • Carbon skeleton, C-H bonds omitted
  • C-C-C-C

27
Formula Writing
  • Complete structural formula
  • H H H H
  • H C C C C H
  • H H H H

28
Stick or minimal Structures
29
Stick Structures
  • Line ends joints represent carbons
  • Hydrogens understood
  • Others draw

30
Draw the following
  • Propane octane
  • hexane pentane
  • butane methane
  • heptane ethane

31
Draw the following
5-butyl-3-ethyl-4-cyclohexyl-,2,2-dimethyl-6-propy
lnonane
32
Name the following
33
Branched Alkanes
34
Branched Chains
  • When an alkane chain gets another hydrocarbon
    group substituted onto it
  • Branches sidechains

35
Branched Chains
C C C C C C C C C C
36
Naming Branched Chains
37
  • ) Find the longest continuous carbon chain name
    it as the main chain. The final name will end
    with the naming of the main chain

38
  • C Hexane
  • C C C C C C
  • C C C

39
  • ) Number each carbon in the chain so that, the
    side chains will be connected to the lowest
    possible numbers on the carbons

40
  • C Hexane
  • C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
  • C C C

41
  • ) Name the side chains or substituted groups,
    precede them with the of the carbon they are
    connected to a dash

42
  • C 2-methyl
  • C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
  • C C C
  • 2-methyl 4-ethyl

43
  • ) If identical groups appear more than once, use
    prefixes di for 2, tri for 3, tetra for 4, penta
    for 5, etc Examples dimethyl, tripropyl, etc

44
  • C 2,2-dimethyl
  • C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6
  • C C C
  • 4-ethyl

45
  • ) Name the sidechains or groups in alphabetical
    order, but ignore the prefixes when doing so
  • Examples ethyl comes before dimethyl, e lt m

46
  • ) Separate numbers with commas, use hyphens
    between words numbers, and write the alkanes as
    one word
  • Example dimethylhexane

47
  • C
  • C C C C C C
  • C C C
  • 4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylhexane

48
Drill Name
CH3
CH2 H3C-CH-CH2-CH-CH-CH3
CH3 CH2 CH3
49
Deriving Structures from Names
  • Draw the main chain first
  • Look the name ending
  • Draw the branches
  • Look the group name

50
Draw
  • 3,4-diethyl-2-methyloctane
  • 2,3,5-trimethylhexane
  • 5-butyl-3-ethyl-2,6,8-trimethyl-4-propyldecane

51
Drill Draw
5-butyl-3-ethyl-2,6,8,9-tetramethyl-4,7-dipropylde
cane
52
Isomers
  • Compounds that have the same chemical formula,
    but different shapes
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