Chapter Menu - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter Menu PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6e7c09-Y2JlY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter Menu

Description:

Title: Chemistry: Matter and Change Author: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Last modified by: HASD Created Date: 5/2/2007 5:56:35 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:42
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 34
Provided by: Glenco109
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Ionic Compounds and Metals
Section 7.1 Ion Formation Section 7.2 Ionic
Bonds and Ionic Compounds Section 7.3 Names and
Formulas for Ionic Compounds Section 7.4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the
corresponding slides.
Exit
2
Section 7-1
Section 7.1 Ion Formation
  • Define a chemical bond.

octet rule atoms tend to gain, lose, or share
electrons in order to acquire eight valence
electrons
  • Describe the formation of positive and negative
    ions.
  • Relate ion formation to electron configuration.

chemical bond cation anion
Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose valence
electrons to achieve a stable octet electron
configuration.
3
Section 7-1
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds
  • A ____________ ________ is the force that
    holds two atoms together.
  • Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the
    positive nucleus of one atom and the negative
    electrons of another atom.

4
Section 7-1
Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds (cont.)
  • Atoms try to form the octetthe stable
    arrangement of eight valence electrons in the
    outer energy levelby gaining or losing valence
    electrons.

5
Section 7-1
Positive Ion (Cation) Formation
  • A positively charged ion is called a ________.

6
Section 7-1
Positive Ion Formation (cont.)
  • Metals are reactive because they lose valence
    electrons easily.

7
Section 7-1
Positive Ion Formation (cont.)
  • Transition metals commonly form 2 or 3 ions,
    but can form greater than 3 ions.
  • Other relatively stable electron arrangements are
    referred to as pseudo-noble gas configurations.

8
Section 7-1
Negative Ion (Anion) Formation
  • An ____________ is a negatively charged ion.
  • Most nonmetal ions gain the number of electrons
    required to fill an octet.

9
Section 7-2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
  • Describe the formation of ionic bonds and the
    structure of ionic compounds.
  • Generalize about the strength of ionic bonds
    based on the physical properties of ionic
    compounds.
  • Categorize ionic bond formation as exothermic or
    endothermic.

compound a chemical combination of two or more
different elements
10
Section 7-2
Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds
(cont.)
ionic bond ionic compound crystal
lattice electrolyte lattice energy
Oppositely charged ions attract each other,
forming electrically neutral ionic compounds.
11
Section 7-2
Formation of an Ionic Bond
  • The electrostatic force that holds oppositely
    charged particles together in an ionic compound
    is called an ionic bond.
  • Compounds that contain ionic bonds are called
    ionic compounds.
  • Binary ionic compounds contain only two different
    elementsa metallic cation and a nonmetallic
    anion.

12
  • The repeating pattern of particle packing in an
    ionic compound is called an ionic crystal.

13
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • The strong attractions among the positive and
    negative ions result in the formation of the
    crystal lattice.
  • A crystal lattice is the three-dimensional
    geometric arrangement of particles, and is
    responsible for the structure of many minerals.

14
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Melting point, boiling point, and hardness depend
    on the strength of the attraction.

15
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • This figure demonstrates how and why crystals
    break when an external force is applied.

16
Section 7-2
Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • In a solid, ions are locked into position and
    electrons cannot flow freelysolid ions are poor
    conductors of electricity.
  • Liquid ions or ions in aqueous solution have
    electrons that are free to move, so they conduct
    electricity easily.
  • An ion in aqueous solution that conducts
    electricity is an electrolyte.

17
Section 7-3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds
  • Relate a formula unit of an ionic compound to its
    composition.
  • Write formulas for ionic compounds and oxyanions.
  • Apply naming conventions to ionic compounds and
    oxyanions.

nonmetal an element that is generally a gas or a
dull, brittle solid and is a poor conductor of
heat and electricity
18
Section 7-3
Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic
Compounds (cont.)
formula unit monatomic ion oxidation
number polyatomic ion oxyanion
In written names and formulas for ionic
compounds, the cation appears first, followed by
the anion.
19
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds
  • Chemists around the world need to communicate
    with one another, so a standardized system of
    naming compounds was developed.
  • A formula unit or _________ ________ represents
    the simplest ratio of the ions involved.

20
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • The symbol for the cation () is always written
    first, followed by the symbol of the anion (-).
  • Subscripts represent the number of ions of each
    element in an ionic compound.
  • The total charge must equal zero in an ionic
    compound.
  • CaO
  • NaP
  • AlS

21
Section 7-3
Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Polyatomic ions are ions made up of more than one
    atom.
  • Never change subscripts of polyatomic ions,
  • place in parentheses and write the appropriate
    subscript outside the parentheses.
  • Ca (NO3) 2

22
Section 7-3
Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
  • Chemical nomenclature is a systematic way of
    naming compounds.
  • Name the cation followed by the anion.
  • For monatomic, cations use the element name.
  • For monatomic anions, use the root element name
    and the suffix ide.
  • To distinguish between different charges of the
    same element, the Roman Numeral representing the
    oxidation state is written in parentheses after
    the name of the cation.
  • When the compound contains a polyatomic ion, name
    the cation followed by the name of the polyatomic
    ion.

23
Section 7-3
Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
24
Section 7-4
Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of
Metals
  • Describe a metallic bond.
  • Relate the electron sea model to the physical
    properties of metals.
  • Define alloys, and categorize them into two basic
    types.

physical property a characteristic of matter
that can be observed or measured without altering
the samples composition
25
Section 7-4
Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of
Metals (cont.)
electron sea model delocalized electron metallic
bond alloy
Metals form crystal lattices and can be modeled
as cations surrounded by a sea of freely moving
valence electrons.
26
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
  • Metals are not ionic but share several properties
    with ionic compounds.
  • Metals also form lattices in the solid state,
    where 8 to 12 other atoms closely surround each
    metal atom.

27
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Within the crowded lattice, the outer energy
    levels of metal atoms overlap.
  • The electron sea model proposes that all metal
    atoms in a metallic solid contribute their
    valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons.
  • The electrons are free to move around and are
    referred to as delocalized electrons, forming a
    metallic cation.

28
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • A metallic bond is the attraction of an metallic
    cation for delocalized electrons.

29
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Boiling points are much more extreme than melting
    points because of the energy required to separate
    atoms from the groups of cations and electrons.

30
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Metals are malleable because they can be hammered
    into sheets.
  • Metals are ductile because they can be drawn into
    wires.

31
Section 7-4
Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals
(cont.)
  • Mobile electrons around cations make metals good
    conductors of electricity and heat.
  • As the number of delocalized electrons increases,
    so does hardness and strength.

32
Section 7-4
Metal Alloys
  • An alloy is a mixture of elements that has
    metallic properties.
  • The properties of alloys differ from the elements
    they contain.

33
Section 7-4
Metal Alloys (cont.)
About PowerShow.com