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Life Quality

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Life Quality Soil Food Chain Gy rgy V rallyay Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Life Quality


1
Life Quality Soil Food Chain
György Várallyay Research Institute for Soil
Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the
Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest, Hungary
5th Alps-Adria Scientific Workshop 611 March,
2006, Opatija, Croatia
2
  • Quality of life criteria
  • healthy and good-quality food
  • clean water
  • pleasant environment
  • rational land use
  • sustainable management of natural resources
  • conservation of soil and water resources
  • landscape preservation

3
Relationships between resources and the society
atmosph.
hydrosph.
soil
biota
Protection of land management resources
Land resources
socio-economic implications
facts
requirements
Decision making as interface
processes
production
environment
possibilities for regulation
transport
RESOURCES
SOCIETY
4
The DPSIR Framework Applied to Soils
5
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6
SOILS/LAND represent a considerable part of the
natural resources
  • consequently, their
  • rational utilization
  • conservation and the
  • maintenance of their multipurpose functionality
  • have particular significance in the
  • national economy (optimal utilization of natural
    resources, rational biomass production .), and
  • environment protection (soil-water-biota-biosphere
    conservation)

7
SOIL FUNCTIONS
  • conditionally renewable natural resource
  • integrator transformer of other natural
    resources
  • most important media for biomass production
  • storage of heat, water, nutrients pollutants
  • buffer of various natural and human-induced
    stresses
  • filter prevention of groundwater pollution
    etc.
  • transformation of various substances including
    detoxication
  • habitat for soil biota, gene-reservoir, media
    of biodiversity
  • conservator of natural and human heritage.

8
Sustain food and biomass production
Plant health
Physical environment of roots
Plant nutrition
mineralisation
N,P,S,K,
availability of water porosity aeration
Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cu
CEC
PGPR, pathogens
allelochemicals
P
N
mycorhizae
earthworms
rhizobia
rhizosphere
9
Environmental functions of soil
10
Soil functions
  • Society has utilized these functions in different
    ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout
    history, depending on the given natural
    conditions and socio-economic circumstances.
  • Irrational use may result in over-exploitation,
    in the decreasing efficiency of one or more soil
    functions, and above a certain limit in
    serious environmental deterioration.

11
Major limitations of the agro-ecological potential
North and Central Asia
South East Asia
South America
Central America
North America
Australasia
World Average
South Asia
Africa
Europe
Drought
Mineral stress
Shallow depth
Water excess
Perma- frost
Left available

36
25
22
18
16
15
15
14
11
10
12
Land degradation problems in Europe
Erosion
Organic Matter
Compaction
Decline in Biodiversity
Floods and landslides
Contamination local and diffuse
Salinization
Sealing
13
Carpathian Plains are relatively favourable for
rainfed biomass production but faced with
various ecological constraints
  • soil degradation processes
  • extreme moisture regime
  • nutrient stresses
  • environmental pollution

14
In the Carpathian Basin the most important soil
degradation processes are as follows
  1. Soil erosion by water or wind.
  2. Soil acidification.
  3. Salinization/alkalization/sodification.
  4. Physical soil degradation, such as structure
    destruction, compaction, surface sealing, etc.
  5. Extreme moisture regime (sometimes) simultaneous
    hazard of over-moistening, waterlogging and
    drought-sensitivity.
  6. Biological degradation, such as unfavourable
    changes in soil biota, decrease in soil organic
    matter.
  7. Unfavourable changes in the biogeochemical cycles
    of elements, especially in the regime of plant
    nutrients, such as leaching volatilization
    biotic and abiotic immobilization.
  8. Decrease in the buffering capacity of soil soil
    pollution, environmental toxicity.

15
Limited water resources
  • atmospheric precipitation
  • quantity spatial
  • form high
    distribution
  • chemical composition time
  • surface waters
  • quantity
  • ? ? extremes ??
  • quality
  • subsurface waters
  • quality
  • depth
  • fluctuation
  • seepage
  • surface runoff
  • erosion
  • sediment transport ? ? ?
  • sedimentation

?
16
EXTREME Moisture Regime
flood water logging water surplus over-moisteni
ng drought water deficiency
  • Consequences
  • water losses
  • E
  • surface runoff
  • filtration
  • soil losses O.M.,
    nutrients
  • biota losses
  • vegetation losses
  • yield losses
  • energy losses
  • Reasons
  • high spatial (territorial)
  • temporal
  • variability of atm. precipitation
  • rain snow - snowmelt
  • relief macro, meso, micro
  • soil
  • vegetation
  • land use

17
wastes
air
water
in soil (original)
from other source)
resource
emission transmission
- imission
total content
extractant soil properties
solubility
dependent
soluble content
Direct pollution with soil (dust suspended matter)
can move can reach
water resource
Water (solute) transport dependable
mobile content
Direct poisening
Drinking
available content
may enter living organisms (food chain)
Selective uptake by plants (plant nutrition)
plant available
Selective uptake by animals (animal nutrition)
animal available
Meat eating
Plant eating
Selective uptake by human beings (human nutrition)
human available
Human health impacts
18
SOIL FUNCTIONS
SOIL PROPERTIES
! SOIL PROCESSES
SOIL FORMING FACTORS
The main task of up-to-date soil science is the
efficient control of soil processes!
Any soil-related action require adequate
information on soil and on its environment
terrain land-site ecosystem
19
Control of soil processes
Registration of facts and consequences
soil properties - fertility yield environmental
impacts
Analysis of potential reasons (soil processes)
Analysis modelling of soil properties soil
processes soil-plant (crop)
relations soil-environment
Analysis of influencing factors and their
mechanisms
prognosis
Possibilities of theoretical real
regulation rational
(control) economic
Methods and technologies for the optimum
variants
IMPLEMENTATION
20
Registration of soil properties
Parameters (definitions, selection)
measurement Methods for their
determination calculation
estimation
Survey, sampling, laboratory analysis background
(capacitiy)
Data
Category systems
Soil information systems
vertical Spatial and time
variability of soil properties
horizontal
Mapping
Monitoring
Remote-sensing Geo-statistics
21
Strategy for pollution control
d
vulnerability susceptibility sensitivity
soil of waters
ecosystem to various compounds
TRANSMISSION
pollution
IMISSION
mobilizing agent (pH)
d
d
LOAD (deposition, accumulation)
d
CRITICAL LOAD concentration (stress)
d
i
d
i
CTB
EXCEEDANCE d
IMMOBILE CONTENT (POOL)
i -increase d -decrease
22
  • The main possibilities of efficient soil
    pollution control are
  • emission/imission reduction (preventing or
    reducing the quantity of pollutants deposited on
    or transported to the soil surface or into the
    soil)
  • prevention of the mobilization of potentially
    harmful chemical compounds or elements which are
    already present in the soil but in temporarily
    immobile form
  • decrease in the susceptibility/vulnerability
    of soil to various pollutants (through an
    increase in the buffering capacity of soils),
    making it tolerant of a higher critical load of
    pollutants and consequently reducing the
    exceedance risk and its unfavourable ecological
    consequences.

23
  • Hungarian soil science and agrochemistry have
    achieved significant results in food chain
    pollution control
  • determination of the specific solubility,
    mobility, availability and toxicity of various
    elements and chemical compounds under different
    soil conditions
  • quantification of the tolerance limits and
    critical loads of various desirable or
    acceptable target levels (critical quantity,
    critical concentration)
  • definition and classification of the potential
    economical, environmental, ecological and health
    consequences of exceedance loads or stresses
  • elaboration of alternative methods and
    technologies for the prevention, minimalization,
    or at least reduction of soil pollution and its
    unfavourable economical, ecological and
    environmental consequences.

24
Thank you very much for your attention!
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