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From Bedrock to Soil

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Title: Soil Formation and Composition Last modified by: Elizabeth Davis Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Company: Student Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: From Bedrock to Soil


1
From Bedrock to Soil
  • Ch. 10.3

2
Objectives
  • Students will be able to
  • Describe the source of soil.
  • Explain how the different properties of soil
    affect plant growth.
  • Describe how various climates affect soil.

3
Engage/Explore
  • Has there always been soil on Earth?
  • What makes soil valuable to humans?
  • How would you describe the soil of this area in
    terms of color, feel, and makeup?

4
What is Soil?
  • Discover Activity? Lab
  • What is soil?
  • Materials - topsoil, toothpicks, hand lens, paper
    cup, paper towel
  • Soil lab sheet - write your recipe.

5
Source of soil
  • Soil - a loose, mixture of small mineral
    fragments, organic material, water, and air that
    can support the growth of vegetation.
  • The type of soil that forms depends on the type
    of rock that weathers.
  • Parent rock the rock formation that is the
    source of mineral fragments in the soil.

6
Source of soil
  • Bedrock the layer of rock beneath soil.
  • Residual soil soil that remains above its
    parent rock.

7
The Source of Soil
  • Transported soil soil that is blown or washed
    away from its parent rock.

8
Soil Texture and Soil Structures
  • The particle of rock in soil are classified by
    size.
  • 1. Gravel 2 mm and larger
  • 2. Sand less than 2 mm more than .05 mm
  • 3. Silt less than .05 mm more than .002 mm
  • 4. Clay less than .002 mm

9
Soil Texture and Soil Structure
  • Soil texture is the soil quality that is based
    on the proportions of soil particles.
  • Soil consistency describes a soils ability to
    be worked and broken up for farming.

10
Soil Texture and Soil Structure
  • Infiltration ability of water to move through
    soil.
  • Soil structure is the arrangement of soil
    particles.

11
Soil Fertility
  • Soil fertility a soils ability to hold
    nutrients and to supply nutrients to a plant.
  • Humus - the organic material formed in soil from
    the decayed remains of plants and animals.

12
Humus
  • Humus forms in a process called decomposition.
    As decomposition occurs, organisms that live in
    soil turn dead organic material into humus.

13
Soil Horizons
  • Soil Horizons layers of the soil with
    humus-rich soil on top, sediment below that and
    bedrock on the bottom.
  • Topsoil top layer of soil which contains more
    humus.

14
Soil pH
  • It is used to measure how acidic or basic a soil
    is and ranges from 0 to 14. The midpoint is 7
    which is neutral. Below 7 is acidic and above is
    basic.
  • The pH of soil influences how nutrients dissolve
    in the soil.

15
Soil Horizons Lab
  • Obj. Students will be apply the soil horizons
    to create there own.
  • Materials Plaster of paris, gravel, sand,
    topsoil
  • Create the soil horizons using the textbook as a
    guide.

16
What is a loose mixture of small mineral
fragments, organic material, water, and air that
can support the growth of vegetation?
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
317EDEA2-9874-0643-B70E-EC6FA13E9879
A.) transported soil
B.) bedrock
C.) soil
D.) parent soil
E.)
17
Tropical Rain Forest Climates
  • Air is very humid
  • Large amount of rain
  • Warm Temperatures
  • Crops can grow year round
  • Animals and plants decay easily.
  • Soil is nutrient poor. Rains have caused
    leaching in the topsoil and the topsoil is thin.
    Lush plants require lots of nutrients.

18
Desert Climates
  • Less rain than 25 cm a year.
  • Low rate of chemical weathering and less ability
    to support plant and animal life.
  • Some groundwater is available.
  • The chemicals in the soil from groundwater are
    various types of salts which are toxic or
    poisonous.

19
Temperate Forest and Grassland Climates
  • The US has a temperate climate.
  • An abundance of weathering occurs.
  • Enough rain to cause a high level of chemical
    weathering and no leaching.
  • Frost action occurs which results in thick,
    fertile soil.
  • Most productive soil.

20
Arctic Climates
  • So little precipitation
  • Like cold deserts.
  • Chemical weathering happens slowly.
  • Soil formation happens slowly.
  • Thin soil and unable to support many plants.
  • Low soil temperatures
  • Not a lot of humus and nutrients.

21
What is life in the soil like?
  • Soil Website
  • Soil organisms mix the soil and make space in it
    for air and water. Others make humus.

22
Litter
  • As plants shed leaves, they form a loose layer
    called litter.
  • Not a cat litter but leaves litter!

23
What is life in the soil like?
  • Decomposers - are the organisms that break the
    remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and
    digest them with chemicals.
  • Fungi, protists, bacteria, and worms - main soil
    decomposers.

24
Decomposers
25
Worms
  • Do most of the work mixing humus in the soil.

26
Burrowing Mammals
27
Burrowing Mammals
  • Break up hard, compacted soil and mix humus
  • Add nitrogen to the soil when they excrete waste
  • Add organic material when they die and decay.
  • Help aerate or mix air into the soil

28
Wrap-Up
  • Soil Songs

29
7th period Grade on Dir. Rdg iRespond
Questions Soil Horizons Foldable Live Soil
Horizon
30
From Bedrock to Soil Questions
31
1. The layer of rock beneath the soil.
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
547B14D2-93BF-6340-B7B0-C75162EF6BAC
A.) transported soil
B.) bedrock
C.) soil
D.) parent rock
E.)
32
2. Soil that is blown or washed away from its
parent rock.
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
38FBBA7B-CD21-4D49-9E19-EFC1C8C4C28F
A.) transported soil
B.) bedrock
C.) soil
D.) parent rock
E.)
33
3. The source of mineral fragments in the soil.
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
4130702B-947D-3741-97BF-36B75B5F79BF
A.) transported soil
B.) bedrock
C.) soil
D.) parent rock
E.)
34
4. Soil quality based on the relative size of
soil particles is called
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
39D50836-563E-B449-8ECA-3304437E04B1
A.) residual soil
B.) soil structure
C.) soil texture
D.) soil particles
E.)
35
5. What is the arrangement of soil particles
called?
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
B95B6097-4232-1540-AECA-2BC9B0D92383
A.) soil structure
B.) soil texture
C.) soil particles
D.) infiltration
E.)
36
6. What is the organic material formed in soil
from the decayed remains of plants and animals
called?
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
C4805A25-D56B-5441-9471-892233DAE30E
A.) bedrock
B.) parent rock
C.) residual soil
D.) humus
E.)
37
7. The removal from soil of substances that can
be dissolved in water is called
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
B47E25F2-B660-AF4D-980C-19F79476C1E9
A.) leaching
B.) infiltration
C.) horizons
D.) transporting
E.)
38
8. Soil that has a pH of 9 would be considered
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
0D42F70A-3F34-B041-87DF-F6A54AB844ED
A.) acidic
B.) basic
C.) neutral
D.) abrasive
E.)
39
9. Which climate has the most productive soil for
raising crops?
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
5F5D6EFE-3762-6644-AD6B-ABC7C49A2C1C
A.) tropical rain forest
B.) desert
C.) temperate forest and grassland
D.) arctic
E.)
40
10. A loose mixture of small mineral fragments,
organic material, water, and air that can support
the growth of vegetation.
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
091C49E4-A9DE-844F-A362-56ED4915D7CB
A.) transported soil
B.) bedrock
C.) soil
D.) parent rock
E.)
41
Soil Horizons layers of the soil
  • O horizon Organic leaf litter
  • A horizon Top layer topsoil contains
    decomposed organic materials humus
  • E horizon eluviated has been leached
  • B horizon subsoil contains clay

42
Soil Horizons
  • C horizon comes after A B Weathered rock
  • R horizon - bedrock
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