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The Crucible

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The Crucible By Arthur Miller – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Crucible


1
The Crucible
  • By Arthur Miller

2
The Crucible
  • Have you ever been falsely accused and punished?
    No one believed you?

3
The Crucible
  • Well, what if the punishment were DEATH?

4
The Crucible
  • I believe that the reader will discover here the
    essential nature of one of the strangest and most
    awful chapters in human history.

5
The Crucible
  • Arthur Miller wrote this of his classic play
    about the witch hunts and trials in 17th century
    Salem, Massachusetts.

6
Historical Context The Red Scare and McCarthy
Trials
  • Shortly after the end of World War I, a Red
    Scare took hold of the nation. Named after the
    red flag of the USSR (now Russia), the Reds
    were seen as a threat to the democracy of the
    United States. Fear, paranoia, and hysteria
    gripped the nation, and many innocent people were
    questioned and then jailed for expressing any
    view which was seen as anti-Democratic or
    anti-American.

7
Historical Context The Red Scare and McCarthy
Trials
  • In February of 1950, a Republican senator from
    Wisconsin named Joseph McCarthy claimed to have a
    list of over 200 card-carrying members of the
    Communist party. By 1951, a new flourish of
    accusations began and a new wave were subpoenaed
    to name namesto snitch on those who were
    Communists or believed to be Communist
    sympathizers. Later, the terms McCarthy Trials
    and McCarthyism were coined, which described the
    anti-Communist movement and trials of the 1950s.

8

Millers troubles began in 1950. After directing
a production of Henrik Ibsens An Enemy of the
People, Miller began getting negative attention
for his very public political and social
commentary.
9
Historical Context The Red Scare and McCarthy
Trials
  • Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible in 1953, after
    witnessing first-hand the modern witch-hunt that
    had taken place in the United States. Miller
    wrote the controversial play as an allegory, a
    play which represents something much deeper. In
    this case, the story is about the Salem witch
    trials of the 1690s but also warns of history
    repeating the tragic events of the 1950s.

10
  • In 1953 The Crucible opened on Broadway,
    depicting a deliberate parallel between the Salem
    Witch Trials and the Communist Red Scare that
    America was experiencing at the time. This
    production brought more suspicion onto Miller at
    a very unstable time in American history.

11
Arthur Miller
  • That same year, he divorced his wife and married
    actress and American icon Marilyn Monroe
    however, his marriage to Monroe did not last
    longthey divorced in 1961.

12
Arthur Miller
  • Arthur Miller died of heart failure in February
    of 2005 at his Connecticut home. He was 89 years
    old.

13
What Do I Need to Know?
  • Why did Arthur Miller write The Crucible?
  • What is an allegory? A story, picture, or poem
    which has a hidden meaning
  • What is a crucible? A place or occasion of
    severe test or trial

14
The Crucible
  • Based on historical people and real events,
    Millers drama is a searing portrait of a
    community caught up by hysteria.

15
Hysteria
  • a state of mind, one of unmanage-able fear or
    emotional excesses.

16
The Crucible
  • In the rigid theocracy of Salem, rumors that
    women are practicing witchcraft stirs up the
    towns most basic fears and suspicions.

17
THEOCRACY
  • Government by religious leaders in accordance
    with divine law.

18
The Crucible
  • When a young girl accuses Elizabeth Proctor of
    being a witch, self-righteous church leaders and
    townspeople insist that Elizabeth be brought to
    trial.

19
The Crucible
  • The ruthlessness of the prosecutors and the
    eagerness of neighbor to testify against neighbor
    shows the destructive power of socially
    sanctioned violence.

20
The Crucible
  • Written in 1953, The Crucible is a mirror Miller
    uses to reflect the anti-communist hysteria
    inspired by Senator Joseph McCarthys
    witch-hunts in the United States.

21
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22
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23
TERMS
  • OF COURSE THERE ARE TERMS! GET YOUR HANDOUT!!

24
TERMS
  • McCarthyism The extreme opposition to communism
    shown by Senator Joseph R. McCarthy and his
    supporters in the 1940s and 1950s.

25
MCCARTHYISM
  • Note McCarthyism has become a general term for
    the hysterical investigation of a government's
    opponents or the publicizing of accusations
    against these opponents without sufficient
    evidence to support the charges.

26
A CITY ON THE HILL
27
A CITY ON THE HILL
  • City upon a hill is a phrase from the parable of
    Salt and Light in Jesus' Sermon on the Mount. In
    Matthew 514, he tells his listeners, "You are
    the light of the world. A city that is set on a
    hill cannot be hidden".

28
A CITY ON THE HILL
  • John Winthrop used the phrase "City upon a Hill"
    to describe the new settlement, with "the eies of
    all people" upon them. And with those words, he
    laid a foundation for a new world. These new
    settlers certainly represented a new destiny for
    this land.

29
CHARACTERIZATION
30
CHARACTERIZATION
  • All of the techniques that writers use to create
    characters.

31
CHARACTERIZATION
  • Terms Associated with Characterization
  • 1. character trait  a characters personality a
    trait is not a physical description of a
    character.

32
CHARACTERIZATION
  • 2. direct characterization

33
CHARACTERIZATION
  • 2. direct characterization 
  • the author directly states a characters traits
    or makes direct comments about a characters
    nature.

34
CHARACTERIZATION
  • 3. indirect characterization

35
CHARACTERIZATION
  • 3. indirect characterization  
  • the author does not directly state a
    characters traits instead the reader draws
    conclusions and discovers a characters traits
    based upon clues provided by the author.

36
CONFLICT
37
CONFLICT
  • The tension or problem in the story a struggle
    between opposing forces.

38
CONTEXT
  • The whole situation, background, or environment
    relevant to a particular event, personality,
    creation, etc.

39
IRONY
40
IRONY
  • A contrast between what is expected and what
    actually exists or happens.
  • THERE ARE THREE!!

41
POINT OF VIEW
42
POINT OF VIEW
  • Perspective from which a story is told.
  • There are three types

43
THEME
  • TONE

44
THEME
  • The main lesson of the story.
  • TONE
  • The authors attitude towards the material.

45
DIALOGUE
  • The words characters speak. Advances the plot
    and reveals the characters personalities and
    backgrounds.

46
STAGE DIRECTION
  • Indicates where a scene takes place, what it
    should look like, and how the characters should
    move and speak. Usually set in italic type to
    distinguish them from dialogue.

47
Credits
  • ingecenter.org
  • oddpod.com
  • commons.wikimedia.org
  • www.encyclopedia.com/topic/?Theocracy.aspx
  • westwardcoc.com
  • punditkitchen.com
  • goliathflores.blogspot.com
  • dictionary.reference.com/browse/?McCarthyism
  • classiclit.about.com/cs/articles/a/aa_?cityuponhil
    l.htm
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_upon_a_Hill
  • www.enotes.com/literary-terms/?characterization
  • Websters New World Dictionary
  • www.orangeusd.k12.ca.us/yorba/literary_?elements.h
    tm
  • The Crucuible Penguin classics
  • Prentice Hall, pg 1232

48
Sources
  • The Crucible Literature Guide. Secondary
    Solutions, 2006.
  • The Crucible. Latitudes. Perfection Learning,
    1995.
  • Christopher Bigsbys Introduction in the Penguin
    Books version of The Crucible, 1995.
  • www.troyhigh.com/ourpages/auto/2007/8/29/.../
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