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Research Designs

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Title: Research Designs


1
Research Designs Reading and Writing with APA
Style
  • Psych 231 Research Methods in Psychology

2
Announcements
  • Quiz 2 due date extension Sept 5 (tomorrow) 1159
    PM
  • Reminder Quiz 3 due date Sept 5 (tomorrow) 1159
    PM
  • Exam 1 is 1½ weeks away
  • Online CITI ethics training due week 5
  • http//psychology.illinoisstate.edu/jccutti/psych2
    31/f13/fall2013ethics.html
  • This weeks labs
  • Download and read the Assefi Garry (2003)
    article before labs
  • Bring the article to labs

3
Conducting Research
  • Observational approaches Data collection
  • How do we observe the behaviors of interest?
  • Types of research designs
  • What kinds of research questions are you
    investigating?
  • E.g., Cause and effect? Descriptive?

4
Observational Methods
  • Observational approaches Data collection
  • How do we observe the behaviors of interest?
  • Naturalistic observation
  • Participant observation
  • Survey interviews
  • Archival data
  • Systematic (contrived) observation
  • Experiments

5
Observational Methods
  • Systematic (Contrived Observation) The observer
    sets up the situation that is observed
  • Observations of one or more specific variables
    made in a precisely defined setting
  • Much less global than naturalistic observations
  • Often takes less time
  • However, since it isnt a natural setting, the
    behavior may be changed

6
Conducting Research
  • Observational approaches Data collection
  • How do we observe the behaviors of interest?
  • Types of research designs
  • What kinds of research questions are you
    investigating?
  • E.g., Cause and effect? Descriptive?

7
Types of research designs
  • Case studies
  • Intensive study of a small set of individuals and
    their behaviors
  • Correlational
  • Looking for a co-occurrence relationship between
    two (or more) variables
  • Experimental
  • Investigating the cause-and-effect relationship
    between two (or more) variables through the
    manipulation of variables
  • Quasi-experimental
  • Experimental designs with one or more non-random
    variables

8
Case Histories
  • Intensive study of a single person, a very
    traditional method. Typically
  • Descriptive (and non-experimental).
  • Interesting (and often rare) case. Fits well with
    clinical work.
  • This view has some disadvantages
  • There may be poor generalizabilty
  • There are typically a number of possible
    confounds and alternative explanations

9
Correlational Methods
  • Measure two (or more) variables for each
    individual and see if the variables co-occur
    (suggesting that they are related)
  • Used for
  • Predictions
  • Establishing Reliability and Validity
  • Evaluating theories
  • Problem Shouldnt make casual claims

X
or
or
10
Causal claims
  • Wed like to say
  • To be able to do this
  • There must be co-variation between the two
    variables
  • The causal variable must come first
  • Directionality problem
  • Happy people sleep well
  • Or is it that sleeping well when you are happy?
  • Need to eliminate plausible alternative
    explanations
  • Third variable problem
  • Do Storks bring babies?
  • Neyman (1952) reported a strong positive
    correlation between number of babies and stork
    sightings

11
Causal claims
Source Kronmal (1993)
r 0.63
  • Do Storks bring babies?
  • Neyman (1952) reported a strong positive
    correlation between number of babies and stork
    sightings

12
Theory 1 Storks deliver babies
  • Is killing storks and effective method of
    controlling birth rates?

13
Theory 2 Underlying third variable
14
The experimental method
  • Manipulating and controlling variables in
    laboratory experiments
  • Must have a comparison
  • At least two groups (often more) that get
    compared
  • One groups serves as a control for the other group
  • Variables
  • Independent variable - the variable that is
    manipulated
  • Allows for the testing of causal hypotheses
  • Dependent variable - the variable that is
    measured
  • Control variables - held constant for all
    participants in the experiment

15
The experimental method
  • Manipulating and controlling variables in
    laboratory experiments
  • Advantages
  • Precise control possible
  • Precise measurement possible
  • Theory testing possible
  • Can make causal claims
  • Disadvantages
  • Artificial situations may restrict generalization
    to real world
  • Complex behaviors may be difficult to measure

16
Reading and Writing with Style (APA)
  • The Literature
  • Why review it?
  • What is it?
  • How do you read it?
  • How do you write it?

17
Reading a research article
  • What are the goals of a research article?
  • For the reader to
  • Know about the research
  • Understand what was done
  • Allow further testing replication
  • Be convinced by the research (hopefully)
  • Standardization of research report format
  • APA style
  • Organization and content reflects the logical
    thinking in scientific investigation
  • Standardization helps with clarity
  • Read with a critical eye
  • Write with clarity in mind

18
Misconceptions about Scientific writing
  • Writing the paper is the routine part of the
    research process
  • Forces you to commit to your evidence and
    conclusions
  • Just the facts
  • The facts are just part of the argument that the
    author is making
  • What you say is all that is important, how you
    say it isnt important
  • Good writing leads to higher chance of
    accomplishing your goals

19
Writing style
  • Psychological writing tends to differ from other
    academic writings
  • Not a creative writing exercise
  • Presenting an argument based on data and logical
    reasoning
  • Try to avoid using direct quotes, restate things
    in your own words.
  • Avoid digression
  • Footnotes are rare, theyre used to
    elaborate/clarify a point. Try to do so in the
    text.
  • If long digressions, use the appendix

20
Writing resources
  • The ultimate resource for APA style is the APA
    Publication manual

6th ed.
  • Chapter 8 of your textbook is good too.
  • Lab manual sample paper pp 86-93
  • Also websites to help too.

21
Writing resources
  • A great book for Psychological writing

Sternberg, R. J. (2003). The psychologists
companion A guide to scientific writing for
students and researchers. Cambridge University
Press, NY.
22
Why a structured format?
  • To ease communication of what was done
  • Forces a minimal amount of information
  • Provides a logical framework (for argument)
  • Provides consistent format within a discipline
  • People know what to expect
  • Where to find the information in the article
  • Allows readers to cross-reference your sources
    easily

23
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity

24
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity

25
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity
  • Write for the reader
  • Think about your audience, what do they already
    know, what dont they know
  • Avoid overstatements
  • Be conservative in your claims
  • Emphasize the positive
  • Focus on how the data supports a theory not just
    on how it refutes another theory

26
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity
  • Avoid
  • Jargon when possible
  • Slang and colloquialisms
  • Sexist and biased language
  • Try to be concise
  • Dont use a whole paragraph when two sentences
    will do
  • Longer papers dont mean better papers
  • Eliminate unnecessary redundancy
  • Use simple words (sentences) rather than
    complicated words (sentences)

27
Major goal Clarity
  • Communicate with clarity
  • Use concrete words and examples
  • Check your work!
  • Read it over, make sure that you say what you
    mean to say
  • Use a consistent format (APA style)
  • It helps your reader understand your arguments
    and the sources theyre built on.
  • It also helps you keep track of your sources as
    you build arguments

28
APA style Parts of a research report

Adolescent Depression
1 Running Head ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION
Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima
G. Student and Soyam Eye Purdue
University
  • Title Page

29
The anatomy of a research article
  • The basic parts of a research article
  • Title and authors - gives you a general idea of
    the topic and specifically who did it
  • Abstract - short summary of the article

30
Title Page
Running head will go on each page of published
article, no more than 50 characters
Running Head ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION
1

Adolescent Depression and Attachment Ima G.
Student and Soyam Eye Topnotch
University
Title should be maximally informative while
short (10 to 12 words recommended)
Order of Authorship sometimes carries meaning
Affiliation where the bulk of the research was
done
  • Published title pages will look a bit different,
    but youll find these pieces of information.
    Typically the body of the article will begin as
    well.

31
Abstract
  • Abstract Short summary of entire paper
  • 100 to 120 words
  • The problem/issue
  • The method
  • The results
  • The major conclusions
  • Recommendation write this after youve finished
    the rest of the paper
  • Good first contact, but remember that it is short
    on detail
  • Shows up in PsycInfo
  • Gets skimmed before reading the article

32
Body
  • Hourglass shape

Background Literature Review
33
Body
  • Hourglass shape

Statement of purpose Specific hypotheses (at
least at conceptual level)
34
Body
  • Hourglass shape

- Methods - Results
35
Body
  • Hourglass shape

Discussion Conclusions Implications
36
Body
  • Introduction - gives you the background that you
    need
  • Issue and Background
  • What is it? Why is it interesting/important?
  • Literature Review
  • What has been done? What theories are out there?
  • Statement of purpose
  • What are you going to do and why?
  • Specific hypotheses (at least at conceptual
    level)
  • What do you predict will happen in your research?

37
Body
  • Introduction - gives you the background that you
    need
  • Reading checklist
  • 1) What is the author's goal?
  • 2) What are the hypotheses?
  • 3) If you had designed the study, how would YOU
    have done it?
  • Writing checklist
  • Be cohesive
  • Be relevant (why are the reviewed studies
    relevant?)
  • Work on the transitions (make the flow logical)

38
Body
  • The basic parts of a research article
  • Method - tells the reader exactly what was done
  • Enough detail that the reader could actually
    replicate the study.
  • Subsections
  • Participants - who were the data collected from
  • How many, where they were selected from, any
    special selection requirements, details about
    those who didnt complete the experiment
  • Apparatus/ Materials - what was used to conduct
    the study
  • Design
  • Suggested if you have a complex experimental
    design, often combined with Materials section
  • Procedure
  • What did each participant do? Other details,
    including the operational levels of your IV(s)
    and DV(s), counterbalancing, etc.

39
Body
  • The basic parts of a research article
  • Method - tells the reader exactly what was done
  • Reading checklist
  • 1 a) Is your method better than theirs?
  • b) Does the authors method actually test the
    hypotheses?
  • c) What are the independent, dependent, and
    control variables?
  • 2) Based on what the authors did, what results do
    YOU expect?
  • Writing checklist
  • Is it clear why the procedures were selected?
  • Are any assumptions explicit and defended?
  • Is the level of detail sufficient for
    replication?

40
Body
  • Results (state the results but dont interpret
    them here)
  • Verbal statement of results
  • Tables and figures
  • These get referred to in the text, but actually
    get put into their own sections at the end of the
    manuscript
  • Statistical Outcomes
  • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs,
    correlations, etc.

41
Body
  • Results (state the results but dont interpret
    them here)
  • Reading checklist
  • 1) Did the author get unexpected results?
  • 2 a) How does the author interpret the results?
  • b) How would YOU interpret the results?
  • c) What implications would YOU draw from these
    results?
  • Writing checklist
  • Is it clear how the hypotheses are tested by the
    analyses?
  • Would a graph or table help clarify the results?
  • What questions might the reader still have, and
    how could I answer them in this section?

42
Body
  • Discussion (interpret the results)
  • Relationship between purpose and results
  • Theoretical (or methodological) contribution
  • Implications
  • Future directions (optional)
  • Reading checklist
  • 1 a) Does YOUR interpretation or the authors'
    interpretation best represent the data?
  • b) Do you or the author draw the most sensible
    implications and conclusions?
  • Writing checklist
  • Have you stated your most convincing argument?
  • Do the conclusions follow straightforwardly from
    the results?

43
The rest
  • References
  • Authors name
  • Year
  • Title of work
  • Publication information
  • Journal
  • Issue
  • Pages



Adolescent Depression 29
References Barnett, P. A.,
Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial
functioning and depression Distinguishing among
antecedents, concomitants, and
consequences. Psychological Bulletin,
104. Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression
Inventory. San Antonio, TX
Psychological Corporation. Benoit, D.,
Vidovic, D., Roman, J. (1991, April).
Transmission of attachment across three
generations. Paper presented at the
Biennial Meeting of the Society for
Research in Child Development. Benoit, D.,
Zeanah, C. H., Barton, M. L. (1989).
Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to
thrive. Infant Mental Health Journal,
3, 185-202. Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H.,
Boucher, C., Minde, K. (1989). Sleep
disorders in early childhood Association
with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of
the American Academy of Child and
Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 86-93.
When something odd comes up, dont guess. Look
it up!
44
The rest
  • References
  • Authors Notes (new guidelines put these on title
    page)
  • Footnotes
  • Tables
  • Figure Captions
  • Figures

45
Figures and tables
  • These are used to supplement the text.
  • To make a point clearer for the reader.
  • Typically used for
  • The design
  • Examples of stimuli
  • Patterns of results

46
Checklist - things to watch for
  • Clarity
  • Acknowledge the work of others (avoid plagiarism)
  • Active vs. passive voice
  • Active Summers and Jordan (2009) hypothesized
    that speakers use to much passive voice
  • Passive It was hypothesized by Summers and
    Jordan (2009) that speakers use to much passive
    voice

47
Checklist - things to watch for
  • Avoid biased language
  • APA guidelines
  • Accurate descriptions of individuals (e.g., Asian
    vs. Korean)
  • Be sensitive to labels (e.g., Oriental)
  • Appropriate use of headings
  • Correct citing and references
  • Good grammar
  • APA style checklist
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