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Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica:

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Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica: Migration and Conquest China and India influenced Southeast Asia, while Pacific islanders remained – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica:


1
Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and
Antarctica Migration and Conquest
China and India influenced Southeast Asia, while
Pacific islanders remainedisolated. Eventually,
European colonization greatly altered the entire
region.
Thatbyinnyu Temple in Bagan, Myanmar.
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2
Human Geography of Southeast Asia, Oceania, and
Antarctica Migration and Conquest
Southeast Asia
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
Oceania
Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica
SECTION 3
Unit Atlas Political
Unit Atlas Physical
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3
Influenced by China and India, Southeast Asia
developed many vibrant, complex cultures.
European colonialism left a legacy that
continues to affect the regions politics and
economics.
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4
SECTION
Southeast Asia
1
A Long History of Diversity
Nations in the Region Brunei, Cambodia,
Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar - also the
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Early History China rules northern Vietnam
from 111 B.C. to A.D. 393 Indias Hinduism,
Buddhism influence regional religion, art
Early Southeast Asian states dont have set
borders - mandalasrings of state power around
central court - Khmer EmpireCambodian
mandala that lasts from 800s to 1400s
Chart
Continued . . .
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5
SECTION
1
continued A Long History of Diversity
Powerful States From 1300 to 1800 five
powerful states exist in Southeast Asia - in
todays Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Java,
Malay Peninsula - similar to mandalas, but
larger and more complex Burmese, Vietnamese,
Thai, Javanese national identities develop
Urbanization takes place, large cities
grow - Malay Peninsulas Malacca has 100,000
people in early 1500s
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6
SECTION
1
Colonialism and Its Aftermath
European Control States trade with Arabian,
Indian merchants Islam grows in islands In
1509, Europeans mostly seek money, not colonies
Europe controls areas trade, money goes to
Europe By 1900, all of region, except Siam
(Thailand), is colonized Colonies forced to
farm commodities rubber, sugar, rice, tea,
coffee Nationalism unites allies against
rulers
Interactive
Continued . . .
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7
SECTION
1
continued Colonialism and Its Aftermath
Independence Japan seeks Asia for Asians,
occupies, exploits region during WWII After
war, states seek independence IndochinaFrench
colonial Cambodia, Laos, North, South
Vietnam - Vietnamese defeat French in 1954,
win independence for all Indochina U.S.
becomes involved in Vietnam War
(1957-1975) - tries to stop Communist control
of South Vietnam - U.S. leaves in 1973, South
Vietnam surrenders in 1975 - Vietnam, Cambodia,
Laos become Communist
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8
SECTION
1
An Uneven Economy
Traditional Economies Agriculture is regions
main income source rice is chief food
crop - Myanmar is heavily forested produces
teak wood Lack of industry - Vietnam War
destroyed factories, roads - war refugees left
region, reduced work force - political turmoil
in Cambodia, Myanmar blocks growth Vietnam
builds industry, seeks foreign investment and
trade
Continued . . .
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9
SECTION
1
continued An Uneven Economy
Industry and Finance Some countries have more
highly developed economies - Brunei, Indonesia,
Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore,
Thailand - form economic alliance
ASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian
Nations - other four Southeast Asian countries
join ASEAN after 1994 Nations dont
industrialize until 1960s - industries
agriculture, textile, clothing, electronic
products - Singapore is a finance center
Image
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10
SECTION
1
A Rich Mosaic of Culture
Religious Diversity Includes Buddhism
Catholicism (Philippines) Islam
(Indonesia) - other religions are Hinduism and
traditional, local beliefs
Rich Artistic Legacy Buddhism, Hinduism
influence regions sculpture, architecture - Camb
odias ancient temple complex of Angkor Wat
- Thailands Buddhist temples show
modern religious architecture Thailand,
Indonesia have traditional costumed story dances
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11
SECTION
1
Changing Lifestyles
The Villages Wood houses on stilts protect
against floods In Laos, Myanmar, Thailand,
Buddhist temple is center of village life
Traditional clothing includes longyilong,
wrapped skirt of Myanmar
The Cities Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Singapore
are modern business cities Housing shortage
forces migrants into slums
Image
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12
Section 2
Oceania
Settled in ancient times by migrating Southeast
Asians, Oceania developed three cultural regions.
Contact with Europeans and Americans disrupted
the islanders traditional ways of life.
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13
SECTION
Oceania
2
A History of the Islands
Nations in the Region All, except Nauru, are
island groups - Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia
- Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea,
Samoa - Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Continued . . .
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14
SECTION
2
continued A History of the Islands
First Islanders Prehistoric people come from
mainland by land bridges, rafts, canoes - use
voyaging canoes to travel as far as Hawaii,
Madagascar Three geographic, cultural
regions - Micronesiatiny islands - Melanesia
black islands - Polynesiamany islands
Interactive
Continued . . .
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SECTION
2
continued A History of the Islands
Contact with the West Europeans explore
Pacific in 1500s Missionaries try to convert
islanders to Christianity in 1800s Traders
seek coconut oil sailors hunt whales - settlers
grow coconuts, coffee, pineapples, sugar on
plantations Westerners replace traditions
local societies decline - Europe, U.S. turn
islands into territories, possessions
Continued . . .
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16
SECTION
2
continued A History of the Islands
Recent History Fierce WWII battles fought in
Pacific between Allies and Japan - after war,
U.S. and others use islands to test nuclear
weapons Many islands have gradually moved
toward self-rule - 12 nations have become
independent since 1962 - foreigners still rule
the other islands
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17
SECTION
2
A Traditional Economy
Agriculture In most economies, people work at
subsistence activities - a family produces the
food, clothing, shelter it needs High
islands soil supports crops - bananas, sugar,
cocoa, coffee, copradried coconut meat
Fishing is major source of income
Other Economic Activities Nauru, Papua New
Guinea have mining activities Tourism
threatens environment, traditional lives
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18
SECTION
2
Culture of the Islands
Language and Religion Very linguistically
diverse region includes 1,100 languages - Papua
New Guineans speak 823 languages Christianity
is most widespread religion due to
missionaries - some islanders practice
traditional religions
The Arts Arts and crafts are sometimes sold to
tourists - baskets and mats woven from palm
leaves, carved wooden masks
Image
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19
SECTION
2
Island Life
Traditional Life Polynesian villages were led
by chiefs societies were warlike - fishing,
farming economies - tarostarchy root that
makes poia major crop Micronesians were more
peaceful, lived in extended family
groups - fishing villages on coasts farming,
hunting, gathering inland
Continued . . .
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20
SECTION
2
continued Island Life
Recent Change Few cities, but theyre growing
- people move for education, jobs - fast
growth means shantytowns, bad sanitation - urban
dwellers giving up traditional ways Modern
communication links island groups, connects
Oceania to world
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21
Section 3
Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica
Both Australia and New Zealand were colonized
by Europeans and still have a strong European
heritage.
Because of its harsh climate Antarctica has no
permanent settlements.
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22
SECTION
Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica
3
History Distant European Outposts
The Original Inhabitants Aboriginal people
migrate to Australia from Asia 40,000 years
ago - hunter-gatherers with complex religious
beliefs, social structures New Zealand
settled by Maorimigrated from Polynesia 1,000
years ago
Early Explorers European explorers arrive in
1600s, 1700s - Captain James Cook explores New
Zealand (1769), Australia (1770) Antarctica
is discovered in 1820
Continued . . .
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23
SECTION
3
continued History Distant European Outposts
European Settlement In 1788 Britain colonizes
Australia - Sydney founded as a penal colonya
place to send prisoners Hunters, whalers
from U.S., Europe, Australia colonize New Zealand
British fight Australian Aborigines spread
European diseases With 1840 Treaty of Waitangi
Britain controls New Zealand Gold discoveries
in Australia (1851), New Zealand (1861) draw
people
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24
SECTION
3
Modern Nations
Rights and Land Claims Australian colonies
become independent in 1901, New Zealand in 1907
In 1893, New Zealand is first country to give
women the vote In both countries, native
people have less education, more poverty
Issues Australian movement to leave British
Commonwealth is defeated in 1999 1959
Antarctica treaty preserves unsettled continent
for research - 18 countries have scientific
research stations, 7 claim territory
Interactive
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25
SECTION
3
Economy Meat, Wool, and Butter
Agriculture New Zealand sells butter, cheese,
meat, wool - in 1998, had 15 times more sheep
and cattle than people - crops include
vegetables, fruit Australias sheep ranching
makes it the worlds largest wool exporter
Image
Continued . . .
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26
SECTION
3
continued Economy Meat, Wool, and Butter
Mining Australia has diamonds, lead, zinc,
opals - also bauxite, coal, copper, gold, iron
ore Deposits are far from cities so mining
operations are costly - Australian companies
forced to turn to foreign investors - these
investors control 1/2 of Australias mining
industry
Continued . . .
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27
SECTION
3
continued Economy Meat, Wool, and Butter
Manufacturing and Service Australia doesnt
rely heavily on manufacturing Major industry
in Australia, New Zealand is food-product
processing - New Zealand also produces wood,
paper products 60 of Australias jobs are in
service industries
The Economic Future Both nations want to
develop economies less dependent on
agriculture - difficult to compete with Asias
cheaper labor
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28
SECTION
3
Distinctive Cultures
Australias Culture Most Australians are of
British descent - but many immigrate from places
like Greece, Italy, Southeast Asia - over 20
are foreign born 1 are Aboriginal
Christianity is major religion most people
speak English Ancient Aborigines painted
human, animal figures on rock walls Australian
arts include painters like Russell Drysdale,
novelists
Image
Continued . . .
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29
SECTION
3
continued Distinctive Cultures
New Zealands Culture Mostly British, European
descent pakehas is Maori term for whites - 15
of people are descended from Maori British,
Maori cultural mixEnglish, Maori are official
languages - Christianity is main religion
Maori art includes woodcarving, poetic legends
Creative figures include authors Janet Frame,
Ngaio Marsh - filmmakers Jane Campion, Peter
Jackson
Image
Image
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30
SECTION
3
Modern Life
City and Country Both countries highly
urbanized 85 of people live in cities,
towns - Australias large cities have pollution,
traffic problems - New Zealands cities are
quiet, uncrowded, pollution-free In both
countries, ranchers live far from cities
Recreation Tennis, rugby, soccer, Australian
rules football are popular - New Zealand has
skiing, mountain climbing
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31
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