Republican 1981-1989 VicePrez: George H.W. Bush Born/died: 1911 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Republican 1981-1989 VicePrez: George H.W. Bush Born/died: 1911


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Title: Republican 1981-1989 VicePrez: George H.W. Bush Born/died: 1911

ge H.W. BushBorn/died 1911 2004From
Ronald Reagan

I. Political Background
a. 1967-75 Serves as California governor b. 1976
Falls 80 ballots shy of becoming the Republican
nominee for president c. 1981-1989 Serves as
fortieth U.S. president
(1) Election of 1980
  • a. Ronald Reagan/George H.W. Bush (Republican)
  • b. Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (Democratic)
  • c. John Anderson/VP not chosen (National Unity)

  • d. HUGE Win for Reagan due to Carters
    unpopularity resulting from the Iranian Hostage
    Crisis and the problems with the U.S. economy
  • e. Election Results
  • 1. Popular Vote 43904,153 (R), 35,483,883 (D),
    5,720,060 (I)
  • 2. Electoral Vote 483 to 49 0 (I)
  • Republicans gained a majority in the Senate
    first time since 1954

GreenReagan BlueCarter
(2) Iran Hostage Crisis Ends
  • a. The embarrassment to Carters administration
    was bad but Carter eventually secured the
    release of the hostages
  • b. 52 men were held hostage for 444 days
    release time was scheduled for January 20, 1980,
    when Ronald Reagan became the next president


(3)Problems with Nicaragua
  • A Civil War broke out in Nicaragua- we got
    involved, shocking- I know!!! Sandinistas vs
  • When the Sandinistas overthrew the Somoza regime
    (the guy the US liked) in 1979, and they became
    the government of Nicaragua. 
  • The rebels (the Contras) then were the
    ex-Guardsmen (men from Somozas military), who
    were now running the contra-rebellion.  US Aid
    (help/money) to the Contras had been prohibited
    by the U.S. Congress (we did it anywaysecretly)

Contra-rebel helicopter
  • The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal
    occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events
    during the Reagan administration in which members
    of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an
    avowed enemy, and illegally used the proceeds to
    continue funding anti-Sandinista rebels, the
    Contras, in Nicaragua. Large volumes of documents
    relating to the scandal were destroyed or
    withheld from investigators by Reagan
    administration officials. The affair is still
    shrouded in secrecy. After the weapon sales were
    revealed in November 1986, President Ronald
    Reagan appeared on national television and denied
    that they had occurred. A week later, however, on
    November 13, 1986 Reagan returned to the airwaves
    to affirm that weapons were indeed transferred to
    Iran, but were not exchanged for hostages. On
    March 4, 1987 in a nationally televised address
    to the nation he took full responsibility and
    admitted that "what began as a strategic opening
    to Iran deteriorated, in its implementation, into
    trading arms for hostages."

(5) Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
  • (START) - 1982
  • arms control negotiations between the US and the
    USSR that were aimed at reducing those two
    countries' arsenals of nuclear warheads and of
    the missiles and bombers capable of delivering
    such weapons.
  • The talks spanned a period of 20 years that saw
    the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of
    the Cold War

(6) US invades Grenada
  1. Govt of Grenada overthrown, prime minister
  2. Asked for U.S. help against rebels
  3. We overthrew rebels, set up pro-US govt

(9) Election of 1984
  • a. Ronald Reagan/George H.W. Bush (Republican)
  • b. Walter Mondale/Geraldine Ferraro (Democratic)-
    vp was a woman- 1st woman ever on major prez.
  • c. Election Results- Reagan won huge
  • 1. Popular Vote 54,455,075 to 37,577,185
  • 2. Electoral Vote 525 to 13

GreenReagan BlueMondale
  • d. The election was most notable for former VP
    Mondales selection of Ferraro as his running
    mate the first female from a major party to run
    on a national ballot

IV. Assassination Attempt
  • a. Two months into office (March 31, 1981),
    Reagan was shot by John Hinckley, Jr
  • b. Hinckley shot six rounds one bullet
    ricocheted off the limousine and went into
    Reagans left side, bounced off a rib and stopped
    an inch from his heart, another bullet hit press
    secretary James Brady in the head and left him
    paralyzed, two others were severely wounded

John Hinckley Jr. Assassination Attempt on
President Ronald Reagan
10) Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (1985)
  • Intended to balance the US budget- it wont work
  • law provided for automatic spending cuts to take
    effect if the president and Congress failed to
    reach established targets Because the automatic
    cuts were declared unconstitutional, a revised
    version of the act was passed in 1987 it failed
    to result in reduced deficits.

V. Domestic Policy
  • (4) Reaganomics
  • 1. Economic Recovery Tax of 1981 lowered taxes
    and cut federal spending for a variety of
    programs from job training, student loans to
  • 2. Pro-business policies were based on
    supply-side economic theories

  • 3. Reaganomics gave tax cuts to the consumers,
    then ideally the consumers had more money to
    spend, spurring the economy
  • 4. Some problems with Reaganomics, did not help
    the poor (didnt have extra money to invest),
    stockbrokers took advantage on the relaxed
    government polices and bought/sold stock on
    overvalued prices

  • (15) Stock Market Crash October 19, 1987
    stocks plummeted! Lost 36 in value during
  • 6. Economic downturn balanced out by 1988

b. ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)Failure to Ratify
  • 1. Womens movement remained strong in the 70s
    and 80s
  • 2. After initial support of the ERA, the
    ratification process bogged down
  • 3. ERA failed in 1982, three states short of the
    required ¾

(8) Appointment of Conservative Supreme Court
  • 1. Sandra Day OConner first woman justice
  • 2. Antonin Scalia
  • 3. William Rehnquist chief justice in 1986
  • 4. appointed by Reagan All 3 were conservative

Rehnquist (top) Scalia (bottom)
IV. Foreign Affairs
  • a. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
  • 1. Largest amount of defense budget was spent on
  • 2. (7) Proposed a technological system called
    Star Wars in theory it could detect and
    intercept missiles fired at the U.S.
  • 3. Entire proposal was never approved by
  • Congress

  • Reagans SDI Speech to Congress

b. Peace Through Strength
  • 1. Reagans foreign policy approach
  • 2. Belief that superior military power would make
    Americas enemies reluctant to try to expand
    their power over their own people or other
  • 3. Moved away from the Nixon policy of détente

  • 4. (12) at the Summit Meeting Reagan and the
    Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev began to work
    together after signing a treaty in 1987 to limit
    the number of nuclear weapons each country could

  • 5. (17) Reagan will be instrumental in the
    downfall of the Soviet collapse- due to his
    friendship with Gorbachev , the Soviet leaders
    drinking problem Reagan Specifically targeted the
    Soviet Union when he called the SU an evil

c. (14) Bombing of Libya
  • 1. African nation of Libya was accused of
    encouraging terrorist activities that included a
    takeover of an Italian oceanliner in 1985,
    hijacking an airplane and redirecting to Beirut,
    holding hostages for 39 days
  • 2. Reagan responded by ordering retaliatory
    bombings of several sites within Libya

  • U.S. didnt hear much out of the Libyan leader,
    Mummar Qadhafi after the bombings

d. (11) Iran-Contra Scandal
  • 1. Reagan agreed to sell arms (WEAPONS hellooooo
    we must have been stupid) to the Iranians in
    exchange for the release of American hostages
    even though he pressured other nations to have
    nothing to do with Iran
  • 2. A few were set free, but more were taken

  • 3. Arms negotiations were published in a Lebanese
    newspaper White House denied the deal
  • 4. Soon revealed that profits from the arms sales
    were given to the Contras, the anti-Sandinista
    rebels in Nicaragua

  • 5. Televised congressional hearing, National
    Security Adviser (John Poindexter) admitted that
    he had approved the scheme BUT he didnt tell the
  • 6. Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, a White House
    ambassador, took the blame and admitted to lying
    and falsifying documents

  • 7. Both North and Poindexter were charged with
    conspiracy Norths charges were later dropped
    when the Reagan administration refused to release
    classified documents

(18)Crisis in Lebanon
  • In the spring of 1983, Reagan sent US Marines
    into Lebanon. Following several smaller bombings,
    a truck bombing of their barracks killed 241
    Marines. 3 months later, Reagan withdrew the
    Marines from Lebanon

(16) Free Trade Agreement (1987)
  1. NAFTA-Trade agreement signed by US and Canada
    (and eventually Mexico)
  2. removed several trade restrictions in stages over
    a ten year period
  3. Great increase in across the border trade in
    North America

Called- NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
  • d. (13)Space shuttle Challenger explodes after
    take-off with the nations schools watching live-
    the first teacher go up in space

VII. Random Information about Reagan
  • a. Hollywood actor prior to become involved in
  • b. Was officially associated with the Democratic
    party in the 1950s but his political views were
    much more in line with conservative Republicans
  • c. Known as The Great Communicator because of
    his upbeat speeches

  • d. Oldest elected president 70 years of age
  • e. Suffered from Alzheimers in his later years
  • f. Died on June 5, 2004 at his home in Los
    Angeles, California