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Chapter 11 Conceiving Children: Process and Choice

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Chapter 11 Conceiving Children: Process and Choice – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 11 Conceiving Children: Process and Choice


1
Chapter 11 Conceiving Children Process and
Choice

2
Parenthood as an Option Advantages of Remaining
Childless
  • More time for self and partner
  • More financial resources
  • Marriage less stressful
  • More spontaneity
  • More devotion to career

3
Parenthood as an Option Advantages of Having
Children
  • Children give and receive love
  • May enhance relationship
  • Builds self-esteem, sense of accomplishment
  • Greater meaning and satisfaction

4
Becoming Pregnant Enhancing the Possibility
  • Intercourse just prior to or at ovulation
  • Predicting ovulation
  • Mucus, calendar, BBT methods
  • Ovulation predictor urine tests

5
Infertility
  • Diagnosis
  • More than 6 months of trying problem
  • Not conceiving after at least 1 year
  • 1 in 6 U.S. couples seek help
  • Causes
  • Complex, hard to determine
  • Unidentifiable in 15 of cases
  • 85-90 of cases can be treated
  • Challenges in relationships

6
Female Infertility
  • Failure to ovulate regularly
  • Below normal body weight
  • Smoking and substance abuse
  • Infertility increases with age
  • Cervical mucus may destroy sperm
  • Sperm may not reach the egg
  • Fertilized egg may not implant

7
Male Infertility
  • Abnormal sperm count or motility
  • Caused by poor nutrition
  • Substance abuse
  • Environmental toxins
  • STIs
  • Impaired sperm production
  • Varicocele
  • Congenital abnormalities

8
Reproductive Technologies
  • Artificial insemination
  • Surrogacy
  • Assisted reproductive technology (ART)
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF, ZIFT, or GIFT)

9
Concerns Regarding Reproductive Technologies
  • Expense
  • Legal, ethical, and personal dilemmas
  • 75 failure rate
  • 20-30 end in multiple embryos
  • Health concerns

10
Pregnancy Detection
  • First signs
  • Light period, spotting, or no period fatigue
    tender breasts
  • Nausea/Vomiting appetite change
  • Blood or urine for HCG
  • Subtle softening of uterus at 6 weeks

11
Miscarriage Spontaneous Abortion
  • Occurs in first 20 weeks
  • 10-20 of all pregnancies
  • Emotional impact can be significant
  • Individual or couple may consider grief support

12
Elective Abortion U.S. Statistics Part 1
  • 25 of U.S. pregnancies end in elective abortion
  • 1 occur after 20 weeks
  • 50 of women will have abortion by age 45

13
Elective Abortion U.S. Statistics Part 2
  • Of yearly abortion rates
  • Young, unmarried, white women obtain most
  • 20 married women
  • 60 previously given birth
  • Women with 4 children are more likely to have an
    abortion than women with fewer children
  • 43 Protestant 27 Catholic

14
Reasons Why Women Decide to Have Elective
Abortions
  • Younger women
  • unprepared for motherhood
  • Older women
  • difficulties meeting needs for current children
  • In the U.S. two-thirds of women who have
    abortions cite financial reasons
  • 60 of abortions occur among those with incomes
    below 28,000 for a family of 3

15
Elective Abortions Cross-Cultural Analysis Part 1
  • U.S. has one of the highest abortion rates among
    developed countries
  • All countries with lower rates provide
  • Comprehensive sex education
  • Easy access to inexpensive birth control and
    emergency contraception
  • Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium have 66
    lower rates than U.S. France 50 lower

16
Elective Abortions Cross-Cultural Analysis Part 2
  • Highest abortion rates are in countries
  • With severe restrictions on abortion
  • Do not provide the social services for women and
    children
  • Do not provide sex education and access to
    contraception

17
Types of Abortion Procedures
  • Medical abortion
  • Suction curettage
  • Dilation and evacuation (D and E)
  • Prostaglandin induction
  • Late-term abortion (intact dilation and
    evacuation)
  • Illegal abortion

18
Medical Abortions
19
U.S. Abortion Controversy Historical Overview
  • Early American law allowed abortion until
    quickening (movement of the fetus)
  • 1973 Roe vs. Wade
  • 1977 Hyde Amendment
  • State restrictions or limitations
  • Waiting period, parental notification

20
U.S. Abortion Controversy Current Debate
  • Majority of Americans believe abortion should
    remain legal
  • Pro-life goals
  • Pro-choice goals

21
Experience of Pregnancy
  • Wide range of positive and negative emotions
  • Emotions are affected by physical changes
  • First trimester
  • increased fatigue, nausea, and breast changes
  • Second trimester
  • movement felt heightened sense of well-being
  • Third trimester
  • increased size greater discomfort

22
Pregnancy at Ninth Month
23
Experience of Pregnancy Male Partner
  • Ecstasy to ambivalence to fearfulness
  • Male partner may feel closeness or separation
    toward female counterpart
  • Concern about financial impact
  • Active involvement helps

24
Fetal Development First Trimester
  • Zygote united sperm cell and ovum
  • Blastocyst multiple cells that implant
  • Heartbeat at 9-10 weeks after last period
  • 2nd month spinal canal, arms/legs
  • 3rd month internal organs

25
Blastocyst
26
Fetal Development Second Trimester
  • Sex of fetus can be distinguished
  • External body parts develop including
    fingernails, eyebrows, and eyelashes
  • Skin covered by fine down-like hair
  • Growth in size
  • Fetal movements (quickening) by end of 4th month
  • By end of 2nd trimester fetus has opened its eyes

27
Fetal Development Third Trimester
  • Develop size and strength
  • Down-like hair disappears
  • Skin smoother
  • Vernix caseosa
  • protective creamy, waxy substance

28
Risks to Fetal Development
  • Harmful substances pass to baby via placenta
  • Prescription and non-prescription drugs
  • 1997 viable fetus can be protected under child
    abuse laws
  • Nicotine, caffeine, alcohol (FAS)

29
Placenta
30
Prenatal Care
  • Health assessment before pregnancy
  • Good nutrition
  • Adequate rest
  • Routine health care
  • Moderate exercise
  • Prenatal education

31
Pregnancy after Age 35
  • Essentially safe with prenatal care
  • Fertility decreases with age
  • Heightened rate of fetal defects due to
    chromosomal abnormalities

32
Contemporary Childbirth
  • Prepared childbirth
  • Lamaze
  • Birthplace alternatives
  • Homebirth

33
First Stage Childbirth
  • 10 to 16 hours in duration
  • Bloody show
  • Water breaks
  • Effacing or thinning of cervix
  • Slight dilation

34
First Stage Childbirth
35
Second Stage Childbirth
  • 30 minutes to 2 hours in duration
  • Begins at full dilation
  • Infant descends through vagina
  • Ends with delivery of baby

36
Second Stage Childbirth
37
Third Stage Childbirth
  • 20 to 30 minutes in duration
  • Begins at delivery of the baby
  • Placenta separates and is pushed out
  • Ends with delivery of placenta

38
Third Stage Childbirth
39
Cesarean Section
  • Baby delivered through incision
  • 1970 5.5 U.S. births by C-section
  • 2006 31 U.S. births by C-section
  • Higher C-section rates have not improved maternal
    and infant survival rates

40
Postpartum
  • Range of feelings from excited and happy to
    tearful
  • Baby blues affect 75
  • Postpartum depression (PPD) affect 15
  • Sleep deprivation heightens stress

41
Breastfeeding
  • Initial colostrum has protein and antibodies
  • Mature milk comes in soon
  • Milk will dry up if baby does not suckle at the
    breast

42
Advantages to Breastfeeding
  • Digestible food with antibodies
  • Prevents uterine hemorrhage
  • Emotional and sensual experience
  • Promotes bonding

43
Short-term Disadvantages to Breastfeeding
  • Vaginal dryness due to decreased estrogen
  • Temporary breast tenderness
  • Leaking milk
  • Harder to share feeding duties

44
Sexual Intercourse After Childbirth
  • Vaginal Birth
  • After lochia flow stops and vaginal area heals
  • 3 to 4 weeks
  • C-section
  • When incision healed
  • When desire returns
  • Varies considerably
  • Often 6 to 8 weeks

45
Sexual Interaction After Childbirth
  • Activities can include more non-coital and/or
    affectionate behaviors
  • Factors that interfere
  • Fatigue lowers desire and ability
  • Decreased time due to caring for baby
  • Negative pre-pregnancy attitudes
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