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Unit 9--Vertebrates

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Chapter 30-32 Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes & Amphibians Reptiles & Birds Mammals Unit 9--Vertebrates – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 9--Vertebrates


1
Unit 9--Vertebrates
  • Chapter 30-32
  • Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes Amphibians
  • Reptiles Birds
  • Mammals

2
Phylum Chordata Characteristics
  • At some time in their life, all chordates have
  • A dorsal nerve cord gives rise to spinal cord
  • A notochord flexible supporting rod that gives
    rise to vertebrae
  • Postanal Tail that extends beyond the anus
  • Pharyngeal slits gives rise to gills
  • Most in subphylum Vertebrata

3
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
  • Located on the back (dorsal) part of the body
  • Nerves branch from this to all parts of the
    animals body

4
Notochord
Embryonic Ciona with visible notochord Doe Joint
Genome Institute
  • Located beneath the nerve cord
  • Long supporting rod
  • For most vertebrates, the notochord is present
    only in the embryo stage.
  • In some, vertebrae (backbone) replaces the
    notochord.

5
Notochord formation
6
Pharyngeal pouches
  • Paired structures in the throat (pharynx) region
  • For fishes, slits develop that connect the
    pouches to the outside of the body, becoming
    gills.

7
Postanal tail
  • Extends beyond the anus
  • Bone and muscle within
  • Facilitates in swimming

human embryo with tailbud
8
Chordate Cladogram
Section 30-1
Mammals
Birds
Reptiles
Amphibians
Fishes
Nonvertebratechordates
Invertebrate ancestor
9
Subphylum
Urochordata Tunicate (sea squirt) only larva
has all characteristics
10
Subphylum
Cephalochordata Lancelets the only
adult to retain all characteristics
11
Lancelet characteristics
  • Small, fishlike animals
  • Live on ocean floor
  • An adult lancelet has a mouth that connects to
    the pharynx, which secretes a sticky mucus to
    trap
  • food.
  • Closed circulatory system but no true heart

12
Subphylum Vertebrata
  • Class Agnatha the jawless fishes
  • Ex sea lampreys hagfish

13

14
Lamprey are external parasites,
1 while hagfish are bottom feeders.
15
Class Chondrichthyes
  • Cartilaginous fishes
  • Ex Sharks, rays skates

16
Sharks have several 6-10 rows of replaceable
teeth and toothlike placoid scales
17
Shark bite
Note the size of the shark tooth as compared the
size of an average adult hand.
18
Class Osteichthyes
  • Bony fish (with jaws paired fins)
  • Ex sea horse, lion fish, perch, trout, etc

19
Fish anatomy
  • Overlapping scales for protection
  • Gills with countercurrent exchange
  • Operculum gill cover
  • Flattened bodies to increase speed

20
Respiration
  • Most fishes use gills.
  • Gills are made up of feathery, threadlike
    structures called filaments.
  • The operculum, a bony covering, protects the gill
    slit(s).

21
Feeding
  • Types of feeders
  • Herbivores vegetative matter only
  • Carnivores meat only
  • Parasites feeds on other animals
  • Filter feeders sifts matter out of water
  • Detritus feeders feeds on dead or decaying
    matter
  • Food enters the mouth, stomach, pyloric ceca
    (digestive enzymes), intestines, and out the anus.

22
Movement
  • Alternating muscles on either side of the spine
    allows for S-shaped curve that pushes water
  • Fins for directional movement
  • Swim bladder helps to adjust for buoyancy

swim bladder
23
Response
  • Well-developed brain and chemoreceptors to detect
    taste and smells
  • Lateral line system that detect vibration and
    current changes

24
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25
Class Amphibia
  • double life
  • Ex frogs toads, salamanders, newts

26
Amphibian characteristics
  • Vertebrate
  • Lives in water as a larva but on land as an adult
  • May returns to water to reproduce
  • Uses gills as larva but lungs as an adult
  • Moist skin with mucus glands
  • No scales or claws

27
Amphibian Anatomy
  • Inefficient 3 chambered heart
  • Skin breathing to help inefficient lungs
  • Moist skin
  • Webbed feet, no claws
  • Metamorphosis

28
Reptilian characteristics
  • Dry, scaly skin
  • Lungs
  • Internal fertilization
  • Terrestrial eggs with several membranes
  • Double-loop circulatory system
  • Strong limbs
  • Ectothermic
  • Vertebrate
  • Diverse habitats

29
Reptile anatomy
  • Ectothermic (cold-blooded) body temp changes
    with environment
  • Dry, waterproof skin with claws
  • Partially divided 3 chambered heart

30
Class Reptilia
  • Ex snakes, lizards, turtles, alligators
  • Tuatara only member is its order

31
Amniote Egg allows reptiles to lay eggs on land
CHORION
32
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33
Rattlesnakes are Pit vipers with a heat
sensitive organ that detects warm-blooded prey
34
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35
Class Aves (the birds)
  • Endothermic (warm-blooded) body temp constant
  • 4 chambered heart
  • Well-developed lungs

36
Bird characteristics
  • Reptile-like
  • Aerodynamic feathers
  • Two legs covered with scales
  • Front limbs modified into wings
  • Highly efficient metabolism
  • Strong, lightweight bones

Levy
Volta the bald eagle Alaskan Bird
Rehabilitation Center
37
Reptiles vs. Birds
  • Feathers are produced by tissues similar to those
    that produce reptile scales.
  • Birds have scales on their feet.
  • Birds lay eggs like reptiles.
  • The soft anatomy (musculature, brain, heart, and
    other organs) all are fairly similar.

Information from UC Berkeley, Museum of
Paleontology
38
Bird Anatomy
  • Feathers for insulation, protection coloration,
    assist in flight
  • Hollow bones for lightweight

39
Birds reduce weight for flight whenever possible,
i.e. air sacs attached to lungs one ovary in
females.
40
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41
Compare Heart chambers Skin coverings
Respiration types Cold vs Warm-blooded
Reproduction types
42
Mammal characteristics
  • Hair
  • Mammary glands
  • Require oxygen
  • Four chambered hearts
  • Endothermic

Sea World, whale calf nursing
43
Class Mammalia
  • Hair (to insulate, camouflage, etc)
  • Mammary glands (to nurse young)
  • Viviparous (bear live young)
  • Specialized teeth (determines lifestyle)
  • Nails, claws or hooves

44
Regulating Body Temperature
  • Endotherm animal that can generate body heat
    internally through metabolic processes
  • Body hair insulates
  • Subcutaneous fat layer beneath the skin to help
    conserve heat
  • Sweat glands evaporative cooling
  • Regulating body temperature homeostasis

45
Hair
  • Only mammals have hair. Whales and dolphins
    (marine mammals) have sensitive bristles on their
    snouts.
  • Functions insulation, camouflage, sensory input
    (environmental awareness)

46
Feeding
  • Because of metabolic rate, mammals must eat 10x
    the amount of food as reptiles.
  • Herbivores consume only vegetative matter
  • Carnivores consume only meat
  • Omnivores consume meat and vegetables
  • Filter feeders sift out plankton and small fish
    from water
  • Name an example of each type of animal feeder.

47
Specialized teeth
Section 32-1
CARNIVORE
HERBIVORE
Jawjoint
Jaw joint
Horse
Wolf
Figure 324 The Jaws and Teeth of Mammals (p. 823)
48
Respiration
  • All mammals, even marine, have lungs to breathe
    in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
  • The diaphragm muscle lowers to help expand the
    chest cavity for greater volume.

49
Excretion
  • Kidneys help mammals maintain homeostasis (water
    and salt balance).

50
Response
  • Mammals have the most highly developed brains.
  • Diurnal animals have the best developed color
    vision since these animals are awake during
    daylight.
  • Mammals also have highly developed sense of smell
    and hearing.

51
Chemical Controls
  • Endocrine glands produce and secrete hormones
    that affect other organs and tissues
  • Hormones can regulate mammal behavior and vital
    functions such as maintaining blood sugar or
    calcium levels.

52
Fighting Disease
  • Immune systems help mammals ward off pathogens,
    disease-causing microorganisms, that may invade
    the body.

53
Reproduction
  • All mammals
  • Internal fertilization male deposits sperm
    inside the female reproductive tract
  • requires mothers milk for nourishment when young
  • display maternal care

54
Classification by reproduction
  • Monotremes (egg-laying)
  • Ex platypus echidna
  • Marsupials (pouched)
  • Ex koala, kangaroo
    opossum

55
Reproduction
  • Different ways that fetal mammals develop
  • Monotremes lay eggs
  • Platypus, spiny anteaters (echidnas)
  • Marsupials live birth of young that then finish
    development in an external pouch
  • Kangaroo, koala, wombat
  • Placental nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and
    wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother
    through the placenta structure
  • Primates, dogs, cats, pigs, horses, etc.

56
Placental Mammals
Include 95 of all Mammals
Includes 15 orders
57
Rodentia (gnawing)
largest, most successful order
58
Insectivores moles
include smallest mammal, the shrew
59
Edentates (toothless)
most primitive
60
Chiroptera bats
Bats are only mammals capable of true flight
61
Carnivora
special traits for hunting
62
Cetaceans whales, dolphins
Aquatic mammals are capable of holding their
breath for several hours
63
___dactyla
Hoofed mammals Are grouped by Number of
toes (even or odd) They tend to be Large
grazers
64
Probosiceans elephants
Trunk-nosed mammals have only 2 species, African
and Indian
65
Primates
have opposable thumbs superior intelligence
They are the only mammal to make use of tools
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