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History

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Title: History


1
History
2
History
  • Generations generally follow the hardware
  • First Generation 1945-1955
  • Second Generation 1955-1965
  • Third Generation 1965-1980
  • Fourth Generation 1980-

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But, there was a Pre-History
  • Zero-th Generation
  • Jaquard Loom
  • Programming began in?
  • 1801
  • !!!!!!!!

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What do these cards look like?
the punch line, please
punch cards (well see these later)
(double pun intended)
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Pre-History Continued
  • Zero and a Half-th Generation
  • The Difference Engine
  • inventor
  • Charles Babbage

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Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace
Prophet of the computer age
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In 1843, Ada Lovelace wrote the first published
description of a stepwise sequence of operations
for solving certain mathematical problems and is
often referred to as 'the first programmer'.
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She speculated that Babbages Difference Engine
'might act upon other things besides number...
the Engine might compose elaborate and scientific
pieces of music of any degree of complexity or
extent'. The idea of a machine that could
manipulate symbols in accordance with rules and
that number could represent entities other than
quantity mark the fundamental transition from
calculation to computation. Ada was the first to
explicitly articulate this notion and in this she
appears to have seen further than Babbage.
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History
  • First generation 1945-1955
  • Technology vacuum tubes, access time 100 ms.

  • (thats 1/10 of a second)

13
  • One byte 8 bits

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History
  • This circuit board block is one of hundreds
    of blocks that held the 4000 vacuum tubes for
    IBM's Model 701, it's first computer intended for
    scientific work.
  • And these things were hot!

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History
  • First generation 1945-1955
  • Technology vacuum tubes, access time 100 ms.
    (thats 1/10 of a second)
  • Language machine language.
  • OS? Ha!
  • Input (how programmers programmed)
  • switches, patch cords
  • much later - punch cards

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  • Four ENIAC panels and one of its three
    function tables, on display at the School of
    Engineering and Applied Science at the University
    of Pennsylvania

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
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the first programmers were Betty Jennings,
Betty Snyder, Kay McNulty, Marlyn Wescoff,
Fran Bilas and Ruth Lichterman.
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History
  • With the introduction of programmers came
  • bugs.

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On September 9, 1945, Grace Hopper was working
on the Harvard Mark II.
20
As always, she dutifully entered the
preparations and results for test runs the in the
logbook.
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First test of the day arctan
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Two hours later
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Arctan OK but some relays failed. Relays changed.
This sort of electromechanical failure was common.
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Next test mount the cosine TAPE (good). Next,
mount the multiply-and-add TAPE and
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it crashed.
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Relay 70 in Panel F had shorted out. What causes
this short? It did
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as documented at 345, September 9, 1945, by
Grace Hopper, who also dutifully taped the insect
into the logbook. Curiously, the poor
creature has never been given a name.
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History
  • Second Generation 1955-1965
  • Technology
  • the transistor

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  • Second Generation 1955-1965
  • Technology
  • the transistor

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History
  • Second Generation 1955-1965
  • Technology transistors, access time 100 µs.
    (thats 1/10,000 of a
    second)

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History
  • Second Generation 1955-1965
  • Technology transistors, access time 100 µs.
  • Storage tape, then disks.
  • Languages COBOL, Fortran, Algol, LISP and (of
    course) assembler.
  • OS
  • batch systems / monitor
  • With SPOOLing
  • Experimental CTSS
  • Fernando Corbie Corbato
  • dual mode
  • memory protection
  • time sharing
  • Input most often punch cards.

32
Whats a monitor?
Monitor Read input tape Process commands Run jobs
sequentially Refresh at end of job
User Area (Rest of memory)
33
Polys 7040
34
Batch processing and spooling here at Poly
Decks of cards
2400 ft reel
Small (cheap) computer (IBM 1401)
Print images
Big (expensive) computer (IBM 7040)
Input tape (Card images)
Output tape (print images)
35
Polys 1401 (corner of 7040)
36
History
  • Third Generation 1965-1980
  • Technology Integrated Circuits. 1 µs and up.
  • Languages PL/1, C, Basic
  • OS
  • Started with Batch,
  • Time sharing became wide spread. Why? Memory
    protection!
  • Significant systems
  • Hardware
  • Mini-computers (e.g PDP series)
  • IBM 360 family
  • Major operating systems OS 360 (Frederick
    Brooks), Multics, Unix.

37
Thanks for the Memory
Magnetic Core Memory
38
Thanks for the Memory
A Core IS a Magnet
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Thanks for the Memory
Individual bits
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History
  • Multics (1965-2000)
  • Goal create a computing utility. Focus on
    time-sharing.
  • Follow-up to CTSS.
  • ATT, MIT and General Electric.
  • Target machine was the GE 635 mainframe.
  • Early example of many ideas used in later
    hardware and operating systems.
  • Combined segmentation and paging
  • Developed in high level language

41
History Multics begat
  • ATT pulled out at the end of the 60s.
  • ATT researchers were without a cool operating
    system.
  • Ken Thompson decided to write a trimmed down
    version for personal use.
  • Found an under-utilized PDP-7 minicomputer as
    the target.
  • Used GE-635 for development.
  • Assembly language.
  • Later ported the OS to the hot new PDP-11
    minicomputer.
  • Goal rewrite OS in a high level language.
  • Thompson tried FORTRAN. Nah.
  • Then created B. Still no.
  • Dennis Ritchie improved on it

42
History Unix Open Source
  • Originally universities and others got licenses
    for the source because ATT didnt figure it was
    worth much
  • Berkeley added many features, resulting in BSD
    Unix.
  • TCP/IP was developed on BSD Unix.
  • The two versions diverged.
  • 87 minimal version of Unix written by Tanenbaum
    for educational purposes. MINIX. Source
    provided.
  • Disgruntled MINIX users demanded more features.
    Tanenbaum refused to let MINIX get too large.
    (He did add support for hard drives.)
  • Meantime ATT blocks Berkeley from making their
    source code free.

43
Linux
  • A Finnish student decided to write his own
    version. Posts version 0.98 on the web in 1990.
  • Thanks in part to Ma Bell, the penguin got more
    market share than the little devil.

44
4th Generation 1980-
  • Largely focused on microprocessors, networking,
    distributed systems - VLSI
  • Mid-70s the Intel 8080 and CP/M (Gary Kildall)
  • 80 8086 and msdos. (similar to cp/m).
  • 1985 Windows 1.0. Graphical user interface for
    MSDOS not an operating system.
  • 1990 Windows 3.0 for 386.
  • Windows 95.
  • virtual memory
  • multi-programming, etc
  • Later on, long file names.
  • fancy new GUI, closer to the Mac

45
NT
  • Late 80s Microsoft knew they were going to need
    a real OS
  • Hired VAX VMS designer, David Cutler for complete
    rewrite.
  • Targeting heavy business apps. Compete with OS/2
  • Intended to be highly portable.
  • NT 3.1 in 93
  • Layered
  • Looked like Windows 3.1
  • NT 4 in 96
  • Layering was reduced to improve efficiency.
  • GUI was made compatible with Windows 95.
  • NT 5 in 2000 (actually named Windows 2000, but)
  • added many features that had already appeared in
    Win 98, such as support for USB and
    plug-and-play.
  • NT 5.1 XP finally merged the home and
    office environment.

46
Improvements in NT vs. 95/98
  • Support for multi-processor
  • File system security
  • Fully 32-bit (as opposed to having some legacy
    16-bit) code
  • Fully reentrant
  • Shared memory visible only to the processes
    involved.
  • Better protection for operating system
  • But less compatible with old MSDOS programs.

47
The Future Recent and Beyond
  • Windows 7
  • Windows 8
  • ???
  • The cloud as an OS?
  • ???

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