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Renaissance and Reformation (by Beth Bradley, The Academy)

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Renaissance and Reformation (by Beth Bradley, The Academy) Renaissance Rebirth of classical Greek & Roman ideas. The Renaissance was a time of creativity and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renaissance and Reformation (by Beth Bradley, The Academy)


1
Renaissance and Reformation
(by Beth Bradley, The Academy)
Renaissance Rebirth of classical Greek Roman
ideas. The Renaissance was a time of creativity
and change in many areas political, social,
economic and cultural. Emphasis placed on the
achievements of individual human beings.
2
The Renaissance Began in Italy
  • Renewed interest in Roman literature and life.
  • Ruins of Roman empire dotted the Italian
    countryside.
  • Crusades and trade with the Middle East Brought
    Italians into contact with Byzantine
    civilization.
  • Increased trade brought wealth and wealth brought
    the leisure time to pursue other interests.
  • Byzantine scholars had preserved much learning
    from classical Greece and Rome.
  • The Pope made Rome the capitol of the Catholic
    Church in the West.

3
Italian City-States
  • No single monarchy united Italy
  • Milan, Venice, and Florence were thriving,
    independent economic centers
  • Wealthy families (called patricians) such as the
    De Medici and Visconti ruled the city-states
  • Nobles ruled society. Townspeople and merchants
    comprised the middle class. 85-90 of the
    population were peasants.
  • Patriarchal society males controlled family
    finances and had absolute control over children.
    Children were not declared adults until their
    father went to court and asked a judge to
    formally free them.

4
Humanism
  • Define humanism Use the glossary plus
  • Humanism intellectual movement at the heart of
    the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly
    subjects rather than on religious issues.
  • Humanists were usually Christians who believed
    that the individual in the here and now had an
    important role to play.
  • Education was important.
  • Emphasis on individual achievement.
  • Emphasis on classical Greek and Roman texts.

5
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452) artist (Mona Lisa, The
    Last Supper, and The Virgin of the Rocks),
    inventor (helicopter, armored tank, music box,
    parachute), architect, botanist, musician,
    anatomy, optics, engineering.

6
Renaissance Man
  • A universal man Leonardo de Vinci epitomized
    the concept. He excelled in every field of
    study painting, sculpture, botany, mathematics,
    architecture, engineering, anatomy. He was not
    just a scholar and an artist also an adept
    swordsman, horseman, orator, musician. He was
    also a model citizen.

7
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
La Giaconda The Mona Lisa Louvre Museum, Paris
8
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
Helicopter
9
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
Trebuchet
10
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
  • Michelangelo Italian painter and sculptor.
    Total realism in art. Pieta and David. Murals on
    the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

11
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
The Pieta
12
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
The David Florence, Italy
13
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
14
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15
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16
Italian Genius of Renaissance Writing -
Machiavelli
  • Machiavelli published a book in 1513, The Prince.
    Theorized about how a perfect ruler would govern.
  • Stressed that the end justifies the means.
    Urged rulers to use whatever means necessary to
    achieve their goals.

17
The Northern Renaissance
  • Renaissance moved to France, Belgium, Germany and
    the Netherlands.
  • Erasmus Dutch priest and Humanist. Called for
    a translation of the Bible from Latin into the
    vernacular of each nation, so that common people
    could read it. He was disturbed by the corruption
    in the Catholic Church and called for reform.

18
Genius Writers of the Northern Renaissance
  • William Shakespeare England. Playwright between
    1590-1613. Wrote about the actual human
    condition of his time.
  • Cervantes Spain. Novelist. Wrote Don Quixote.

19
The Printing Revolution
  • Printing Press allowed new ideas to spread more
    easily. Spread from China to Middle East to
    Europe.
  • Johannes Gutenberg invented a new type of
    printing press. Used movable type.
  • Books suddenly within reach of ordinary person.

20
Protestant Reformation
  • Selling indulgences - The Church taught that most
    Christians after death went to purgatory to
    suffer a time of punishment for their sins before
    going to heaven. Indulgences were intended to
    remit a part of that time. They were granted
    previous to death by the Church for various good
    works that came to include monetary offerings.
    This last became very controversial because it
    appeared that the Church was selling the right to
    avoid all or part of an individuals time in
    purgatory.

21
Protestant Reformation
  • Reform movement that divided the western Church
    into Catholic and Protestant groups.
  • Began by Martin Luther in the 16th century.

22
Protestant Reformation
  • Martin Luther Catholic priest in Germany who
    Protested the corruption in the church and
    proposed reform.
  • Published 95 Theses.
  • Was excommunicated
  • Began his own church Lutheran Church
  • Translated Bible into German.

23
John Calvin and Calvinism
  • Converted to Protestantism
  • Wrote Institutes of the Christian Reform
  • Like Luther, he believed in the doctrine of
    justification by faith to explain how humans
    could achieve salvation
  • Emphasized Gods all-powerful nature
  • Predestination God has determined in advance
    who will be saved and who will be damned
  • Established a strong Calvinist center in Geneva
    Switzerland

24
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church Protestant Church in England.
  • Begun by Henry VIII in 1534.
  • Henry wanted an end to papal control over the
    English church.

25
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church Protestant Church in England.
  • Begun by Henry VIII so he could divorce his first
    wife, Catherine of Aragon.

26
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church Protestant Church in England.
  • Begun by Henry VIII so he could divorce his first
    wife, Catherine of Aragon.
  • Henry married Anne Boleyn, whom he had beheaded
    only a few years later.

27
The Church of England
  • Between 1536 and 1540, Henry had monasteries and
    convents closed.
  • When Henry died in 1547, his 10 year old son
    Edward became king. He was very sickly and only
    ruled 5 years.
  • Henrys Catholic daughter Mary I came to the
    throne.
  • Tried to return England to Catholicism.
  • Burned dissenters at the stake.
  • Called Bloody Mary
  • Married Phillip II of Spain

28
The Church of England
  • When Mary died in 1558, Henrys Protestant
    daughter Elizabeth took the throne.
  • Returned England to Protestantism.
  • A Renaissance Woman She was very intelligent
    and spoke several languages. She was an
    accomplished dancer, composer, horsewoman, and
    musician.
  • Patron of the arts- sponsored Shakespeare and
    Edmund Spenser
  • Called Good Queen Bess well-loved by English
    commoners
  • The American state of Virginia was named in honor
    of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth I

29
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30
Counter-Reformation
  • Mid-16th century Lutheranism spread throughout
    Germany and Scandinavia Calvinism spread across
    France and Switzerland the Anglican Church was
    strong in England.
  • Catholic Church was revitalized because of strong
    Jesuit (Society of Jesus - religious order who
    swore absolute loyalty to the pope) support,
    papal reforms, and the Council of Trent.
  • Council of Trent Reaffirmed traditional
    Catholic teachings condemned Protestantism
    declared that faith and good works were essential
    for salvation upheld the 7 Sacraments of the
    Eucharist and clerical celibacy strengthened the
    use of indulgences by outlawing their sale.
  • The new doctrine infused the Catholic Church with
    new confidence

31
Scientific Revolution
  • Copernicus heliocentric theory.

32
Scientific Revolution
  • Scientists began to examine the physical
    universe
  • Developed new methods of scientific study
  • New inventions that improved society and mans
    understanding of the universe (telescope,
    microscope, and printing press)
  • Scientific method step-by-step process used to
    accurately collect and analyze data

33
Scientific Revolution
  • Copernicus heliocentric theory the sun is the
    center of the universe.
  • Kepler mathematically proved Copernicus theory
    of planetary motion.
  • Galileo Built a telescope that proved that the
    planets revolve around the sun. He was tried for
    heresy by the Catholic Churchs Inquisition for
    supporting the heliocentric theory. He was forced
    to publicly state that the Earth was the center
    of the universe.

34
Scientific Revolution
  • Leeuwenhoek Microscope/ discovered bacteria
  • Hooke cell theory
  • Boyle Father of Modern Chemistry.
  • Priestly discovered oxygen as an element
  • Newton laws of physics and gravity.
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