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Huldrych Zwingli, a priest in Zurich, Switzerland, ... Protestants did not believe in celibacy and placed the family at the center of their lives. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Section 4 OBJ. Discuss the different forms of
    Protestantism and reforms in the Catholic Church.

I. John Calvin Calvinism
  • Christian unity was lost due to the signing of
    the Peace of Augsburg. Huldrych Zwingli, a
    priest in Zurich, Switzerland, started a new
    Christian group. He forbade relics and pagan
    images within the city. A new service that
    consisted of scripture
  • reading, prayer,
  • and sermons
  • replaced Mass.
  • (1484 1531)

  1. The Protestants in both Germany Switzerland
    sought an alliance for protection from the
    Catholic Church. However, disagreements about
    the Lords Supper kept it from happening. In
    1531 Zwingli was killed during a battle between
    the Catholics and Protestants in Switzerland.
    John Calvin assumed the leadership of the
    Protestant Church in Switzerland.
  2. John Calvin, originally from France, fled to
    Switzerland after converting to the Protestant
    faith. He believed in predestination placed an
    emphasis on the power, grace, and glory of God.

  1. In 1536 he began to reform the city of Geneva,
    Switzerland. He created a church governing body
    called the Consistory which enforced moral
    discipline. People could be punished for
    crimes such as gambling or dancing.
  2. Calvins success in Geneva made it the center of
    the Protestant world. Missionaries who trained
    in Geneva were sent throughout the world. By the
    mid 1500s Calvinism was the largest Protestant

(1509 1564)
  1. Politics, not religion, was the reason for the
    Protestant Reformation in England. King Henry
    VIII wanted to divorce his wife b/c he believed
    she was the reason for them not having a son.
    The Pope would not annul his marriage so Henry
    VIII turned to the courts. The archbishop of
    Canterbury granted the divorce. Henry would
    marry six times.
  2. In 1534 the English Parliament established the
    Act of Supremacy. This act separated Englands
    Catholic Church from the Popes authority. It
    stated that the king was the supreme head of the
    new Church of England. The king controlled
    religious doctrine, clerical appointments. And

  • Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries and sold the
    land and possessions to the wealthy. This act
    provided him with more money and supporters.
    Despite the breakaway, Henry remained very close
    to the Catholic teachings. However, as time
    passed they moved in a more Protestant direction.
  • (1491 1547)

The 6 wives of Henry VIII
  • Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane
  • 1509 1533 1533 1536 1536 - 1537
  • Divorced Beheaded Died
  • Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Katherine
  • Jan. July 1540 1540 1542 1543 1547
  • Divorced Beheaded Survived

  • In 1553 Henrys daughter Mary ascended to the
    throne. She was a devout Catholic and wanted to
    return England to Catholicism. She persecuted
    the Protestants and had nearly 500 burned at the
    stake. Many people resented her, and by the end
    of her reign England was more protestant than
    before. She was given the name BLOODY MARY.
  • (1516 1558)
  • Daughter of
  • Catherine of Aragon

  • Elizabeth, the daughter of Anne Boleyn, became
    queen of England after Bloody Mary died.
  • During her reign
  • William Shakespeare,
  • Sir Francis Drake,
  • Sir Walter Raleigh
  • prospered. She was
  • a Protestant and had
  • the overwhelming
  • support of the
  • people.
  • (1533 1603)

Q. A.
  • What is Predestination?
  • Why does John Calvin Believe in this idea?
  • Why did Henry VIII marry so many times?
  • Why did John Calvin flee to Switzerland?
  • Who was William Shakespeare?
  • Who was Sir Francis Drake?

  • During the 16th century a radical new Protestant
    group developed. The Anabaptists rejected most
    of the Catholic some of the early Protestant
    teachings. Because of their teachings and
    practices both Catholics and Protestants
    persecuted them.
  • The Anabaptists practiced adult baptism instead
    of baptizing infants. To them the true Christian
    Church was a voluntary community of believers who
    experienced spiritual rebirth. No other
    denomination preached this belief.

  • Anabaptist originated in the following European
  • Switzerland
  • Germany
  • Austria
  • Netherlands
  • Descending Protestant denominations include
  • Amish
  • Quakers
  • Mennonites

Other Anabaptists Beliefs
  • Believed all Christians were equal.
  • Any community member could be a minister b/c all
    Christians were considered priests. However
    women were often excluded.
  • The complete separation of church state. They
    would not hold office did not believe the gov.
    had any authority over Christians.
  • Did not bear arms possess or carry weapons
  • Did not believe Mary gave birth to Jesus.
  • Believed once you were baptized you were not
    capable of committing a sin.

Womens role during the Protestant Reformation
  • During the reformation Protestants developed a
    new view of the family. Protestants did not
    believe in celibacy and placed the family at the
    center of their lives.
  • They did however continue the traditional
    subservience and obedience of the wife. They
    felt the womans role was to bear children and
    maintain the house. Protestantism did not change
    womens subordinate place in society.

  1. During the mid 16th century the Catholic Church
    became concerned over the spread of
    Protestantism. Pope Paul III the Church took
    strides in reforming the Church from within. 3
    major changes included the Jesuits, Council of
    Trent, and reforms in the papacy.

  • The Jesuits, AKA Society of Jesus, was founded
    by Ignatius of Loyola a Spanish nobleman in
    1540. their goal was to convert people back to
    Catholicism. They opened schools with well
    trained and educated members working within them.
    They were successful in restoring Catholicism to
    parts of Germany and Eastern Europe. They also
    spread it to other parts of the world (Asia,
    Africa, S. America).

  • Ignatius of Loyola
  • (1491 1556)
  1. Pope Paul III appointed a reform commission in
    1537 b/c he felt the papacy needed to be
    reformed. The commission determined the Church
    ills and proposed ideas to fix the problems
  2. In 1545 a group of cardinals, archbishops, abbots
    and theologians met in Trent for 18 years. This
    group was known as the Council of Trent. The
    council reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
    and opposed Protestant beliefs.

Decisions made by the Council of Trent
  • Both faith good works are needed in order to
    achieve salvation.
  • The seven sacraments, view of communion
    (Eucharist), and clerical celibacy were upheld.
  • Belief of purgatory was strengthened
  • Maintained the use of indulgences but forbid the
    selling of them.
  • Because of the council the Roman Catholic Church
    had a renewed spirit of confidence.

Q. A.
  • What does Protestant mean?
  • Why did the Catholic Church start a reformation
    of their own?
  • What is a reformation?
  • Why did very little change for women during the
    Protestant Reformation?
  • Why were the Anabaptists viewed as radical and
    persecuted by both Catholics and Protestants?
    Where did they run to?

  • Finish any Questions not completed from the Q.
  • Create a chart compare and contrast
    Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anabaptism, and the
    Church of England. Tell which one most closely
    resembles the Catholic faith and why. Which one
    least resembles the Catholic faith and why.