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The Cold War

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The Cold War The early years 1945-1960 Causes of the Cold War The United States and the Soviet Union were never friendly before World War II. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Date added: 5 September 2019
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Title: The Cold War


1
The Cold War
  • The early years 1945-1960

2
Causes of the Cold War
  • The United States and the Soviet Union were never
    friendly before World War II.
  • Although they fought on the same side during the
    war, their war aims were different and there was
    animosity on both sides.
  • The Soviets thought that the U.S. should have
    invaded France earlier.
  • The U.S. thought that the Soviet Union should
    have declared war on Japan earlier.
  • Also the U.S. never told the Soviet Union about
    their nuclear bomb project.

3
1945-- Yalta
  • With the defeat of Nazi Germany imminent, the Big
    Three Allies meet in the Crimean resort town of
    Yalta from February 4-11. Roosevelt, Churchill
    and Stalin agree to jointly govern postwar
    Germany, while Stalin pledges fair and open
    elections in Poland.

4
1946 -- Iron Curtain
  • On March 5, at Westminster College in Fulton,
    Missouri, Winston Churchill declares, "From
    Stetting in the Baltic to Trieste in the
    Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across
    the continent."

5
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6
1947 -- Truman Doctrine
  • On March 12, President Truman requests 400
    million in aid from Congress to combat communism
    in Greece and Turkey. The Truman Doctrine pledges
    to provide American economic and military
    assistance to any nation threatened by communism.

7
1947 -- Marshall Plan
  • On June 5, U.S. Secretary of State George
    Marshall proposes a massive aid program to
    rebuild Europe from the ravages of World War II.
    Nearly 13 billion in U.S. aid was sent to Europe
    from 1948 to 1952. The Soviet Union and communist
    Eastern Europe decline U.S. aid, citing "dollar
    enslavement."

8

9
1948 -- Berlin airlift
  • On June 24, the Soviet Union makes a bid for
    control of Berlin by blockading all land access
    to the city. From June 1948 to May 1949, U.S. and
    British planes airlift 1.5 million tons of
    supplies to the residents of West Berlin. After
    200,000 flights, the Soviet Union
    lifts the blockade.

10
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11
1949 -- China
  • In June, Chinese communists declare victory over
    Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces, which later
    flee to Taiwan. On October 1, Mao Tse-tung
    proclaims the People's Republic of China. Two
    months later, Mao travels to Moscow, where he
    negotiates the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship,
    Alliance and Mutual Assistance.

12
1950 -- Korean War
  • On June 25, North Korean communist forces cross
    the 38th parallel and invade South Korea. On June
    27, Truman orders U.S. forces to assist the South
    Koreans while the U.N. Security Council condemns
    the invasion and establishes a 15-nation fighting
    force. Chinese troops enter the conflict by
    year's end.

13
Battle Maps
14
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15
Battle Maps
16
  • These maps show four stages of the Korean War.
    The first map shows the farthest extent of the
    North Korean invasionto the Pusan Perimeter in
    September 1950. The second map shows the site of
    the Inchon landing by the United Nations (UN)
    forces. Following this surprise move, the UN
    troops advanced as far north as the Yalu River by
    October 1950. The third map shows the extent of
    the retreat by the UN forces after China entered
    the war in October 1950. The fourth map shows the
    territory held by the two sides when they signed
    an armistice agreement on July 27, 1953.

17
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18
1951 -- Rosenberg Spy Case
  • On March 29, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are
    convicted of selling U.S. atomic secrets to the
    Soviet Union. The Rosenbergs are sent to the
    electric chair in 1953, despite outrage from
    liberals who portray them as victims of an
    anti-communist witch hunt.

19
1952 -- Hydrogen bomb
  • On November 1, the United States explodes the
    first hydrogen bomb at a test site in the
    Marshall Islands. Less than a year later, the
    Soviets announce their first test of a hydrogen
    bomb.

20
1953 -- Stalin dies Korean War ends
  • Soviet leader Joseph Stalin dies of a stroke on
    March 5. On July 27, an armistice is signed
    ending the Korean War, with the border between
    North and South roughly the same as it had been
    in 1950. The willingness of China and North Korea
    to end the fighting was in part attributed to
    Stalin's death.

21
1954 -- Guatemalan coup
  • A U.S.-sponsored coup topples leftist Guatemalan
    President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman on June 27. In
    1952, his government had nationalized 400,000
    acres of unfarmed banana plantations belonging to
    the American-owned United Fruit Company.

22
1954 -- Dien Bien Phu
  • After a long siege, Vietnamese communists under
    Ho Chi Minh defeat French colonial forces at Dien
    Bien Phu on May 7. In July, the Geneva Accords
    divide the country at the 17th parallel, creating
    a North and South Vietnam. The United States
    assumes the chief responsibility of providing
    anti-communist aid to South Vietnam.

23
1955 -- Massive Retaliation
  • On January 12, U.S. Secretary of State John
    Foster Dulles first announces the doctrine of
    Massive Retaliation. It threatens full-scale
    nuclear attack on the Soviet Union in response to
    communist aggression anywhere in the world. The
    policy became known as Mutually
    Assured Destruction.

24
1956 -- Khrushchev's 'secret speech'
  • In a speech before Communist Party members on
    February 14, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
    denounces the policies of Stalin. Khrushchev
    rejects the Leninist idea of the inevitability of
    war and calls for a
    doctrine
  • of peaceful coexistence
  • between capitalist and
  • communist systems.

25
1957 -- Sputnik
  • On October 4, the Soviet Union launches Sputnik,
    the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth.
    In 1958, the U.S. creates the National
    Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the
    space race is in full gear.

26
Fear in the U.S.
27
1959 -- Castro takes power
  • On January 1, leftist forces under Fidel Castro
    overthrow the government of Fulgencio Batista in
    Cuba. Castro soon nationalizes the sugar industry
    and signs trade agreements with the Soviet Union.
    The next year, his government seizes U.S. assets
    on the island.

28
1960 -- The U-2 Affair
  • On May 1, an American high-altitude U-2 spy plane
    is shot down on a mission over the Soviet Union.
    After the Soviets announce the capture of pilot
    Francis Gary Powers, the United States recants
    earlier assertions that
    the plane was on a weather
    research mission.

29
Questions
  • What is meant by the term cold war?
  • Why couldnt the U.S. and the Soviet Union just
    agree to disagree?
  • What made this confrontation so dangerous?
  • Would the cold war end in 1960?
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