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The Protestant Reformation Through Maps

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Title: The Protestant Reformation Through Maps


1
TheProtestantReformation
2
Causes of the Reformation?
  • Church corruption
  • Avignon Papacy
  • Conciliarism
  • Marsilius of Padua ? Defensor Pacis Defender of
    the Peace
  • Attacked papal authority
  • The Christian community is the sum of ALL its
    parts!
  • Development of personal devotions ? suspicion of
    clergy
  • Greed of secular leaders ? 1/3 of Europe ? church
    land
  • Papal need for money ? indulgences
  • Printing Press

3
Johann Gutenberg
  • A German goldsmith, who is credited with
    inventing a moveable-type printing system upon
    which he rolled out the first mass-produced
    bible, and in so doing revolutionized the storage
    and transmission of information.
  • In the 1500s over 20 million copies of the
    Bible were sold

4
Gutenberg Bible
  • On September 30, 1454, Johann Gutenberg's Bible
    was published becoming the first book to be
    published in volume.

5
The Gutenberg Bible The Printing Press
  • More readers
  • Cheaper and easier
  • More interpretations
  • More writers to talk about religion and secular
    topics
  • Now Christians could read for themselves

6
The Spread of the Printing Press
7
The Holy Roman Empire in the 16c
8
Abuses in the Church
  • People were sick of the corruption of clergy and
    the worldliness of the church.
  • THE PEOPLE WANTED CHANGE.
  • Popes and some clergy, like Renaissance rulers,
    maintained a lavish lifestyle. BLING BLING
  • They hired painters to paint beautiful murals on
    the church walls.
  • To pay for this the church increased the fees
    charged for things like baptisms and weddings..

9
Indulgences
  • The Church (Pope Leo X) also promoted the sale of
    indulgences (pardon for a sin committed during a
    persons lifetime).
  • In the Middle Ages they were given because of
    good deeds but that changed in the Renaissance
  • By the 1400s the church was selling them for
    money

10
Indulgences Golden Ticket to Heaven
11
Martin Luther
  • Struck by Lightning as a child
  • Begged God.. If he was allowed to live he would
    become a monk.

12
Martin Luther
  • As Protests against the church continued to grow
  • Luther, a German monk and professor of Theology
    started a revolt that led reforms in the church
    and outside it.
  • Angry about a man selling indulgences, (which
    were supposed to get someone into heaven) Luther
    nailed his 95 Theses to the door of a church in
    Germany.
  • Pope Leo X wanted Luther to Recanthe didnt and
    was later Excommunicated

13
95 Theses
  • Among other things, he argued that indulgences
    had no basis in the bible,
  • the pope had no authority to release souls from
    purgatory
  • Christians could be saved only through faith.
  • Lutherans had no mass but rather a sermon

14
  • Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door
  • 95 reasons why indulgences were wrong
  • lt- Actual door
  • Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring
    it to light, the following propositions will be
    discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of
    the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts
    and of Sacred Theology

15
Martin Luther vs. the Church
  • Luther was an overnight success and the people
    loved him.
  • The church tried to persuade Luther to recant his
    views. He would not.
  • The new Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V
    excommunicated Luther and made it a crime for
    anyone to give him food or shelter.

16
Luthers Teachings
  • 1. Salvation could be achieved through faith
    alone and not by good deeds or being a good
    person.
  • 2. Declared that the Bible was the sole source of
    religious truth. Denied the authority of the
    pope.
  • 3. Rejected the idea that priests or other clergy
    had special powers.
  • Said that all Christians had equal access to God
    through faith and the Bible.
  • Rejected five of the seven sacraments because
    they were not in the bible.
  • Banned Indulgences, pilgrimages, prayers to
    saints, ritual of Mass, priests vow of celibacy.
  • Luthers followers were called Protestants.

17
The Spread of Lutheranism
18
The Peasant Revolt - 1525
19
Peace at Augsburg
  • 1555 it was a document that gave German Princes
    the right to choose what church the people in
    their lands would be part of.
  • Most Northern states stayed Lutheran and most
    southern states stayed Catholic.

20
Calvins World in the 16c
21
John Calvin
  • Believed many of the teachings of Luther.
  • Believed in the idea of predestination (God had
    determined long ago who would go to heaven)
  • To his followers (Calvinists) the world was
    divided into saints and sinners.
  • Set up a Theocracy (government run by church
    leaders) in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Stressed hard work, no laughing in church, no
    dancing, fighting or swearing.

22
ProtestantChurchesinFrance(Late 16c)
23
Reformation Ideas Spread
  • The leader of the Catholic Reformation was Pope
    Paul III.
  • He wanted to revive the moral authority of the
    Church and turn back the protestant tide.
  • Also wanted to end corruption within the papacy
    itself.

24
Catholic Reformation What was done?
  • To establish reform, the Pope called for the
    council of Trent in 1545.
  • It met for almost 20 years and came up with
    reforms.
  • After the council, the church called for
  • Stiff penalties for worldliness and corruption.
  • Created new Catholic schools that could combat
    the idea of Protestantism.
  • The Counter or Catholic reformation only
    succeeded in keeping Europe divided between
    Catholics and Protestants.
  • Jesuits (Society of Jesus)

25
Jews and the Reformation
  • Jews had a hard time during the reformation.
  • Italy allowed Jews to thrive, Spain banished
    Jews from the country.
  • Pressure remained strong on the Jews to convert.
  • By 1516 Jews in Venice, Italy had to live in a
    separate quarter of the city known as the ghetto.
    Other cities set up walled ghettos for Jews

26
ReformationEurope(Late 16c)
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