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BUFFALO SOLDIERS

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BUFFALO SOLDIERS THE LEGEND Created By: Buffalo Soldiers Motorcycle Club, Southwest Illinois, Inc. Darryl D Nelson, President Keith Repo Reece, Vice ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BUFFALO SOLDIERS


1
BUFFALO SOLDIERS
  • THE LEGEND

Created By Buffalo Soldiers Motorcycle Club,
Southwest Illinois, Inc. Darryl D Nelson,
President Keith Repo Reece, Vice President
2
BUFFALO SOLDIERS
  • THE LEGEND

Presented By Buffalo Soldiers Motorcycle Club,
Southwest Illinois, Inc. Darryl D Nelson,
President Eric E2 Echols, Business Manager
3
The saga of the Legendary
Buffalo Soldiers began over a century
ago - 144 years ago to be exact.
Lets go back
4
The years 1450-1750 brought a multitude of
changes to the continent of North America. Native
Americans encountered European explorers who
would soon transform and largely destroy their
world.
The Beginning
These same explorers began a trans-Atlantic slave
trade that would not only bring millions of
African slaves to North America, but in time lead
to a new social and economic structure where the
color of ones skin determined whether one might
be free or live as a slave for life.
5
In every major war, throughout the history of the
United States, from the American Revolution
through the Indian Wars, Native-Americans and
African-Americans fought with and against each
other. This scenario prevailed throughout the
Civil War. Some tribes fought for the South, such
as the Cherokees, while others assisted the
North, like the Seminoles.
Continued
6
For the Blacks in bondage, brought over on slave
vessels hundreds of years before, the time for
freedom had arrived.
7
When northern troops arrived in the south,
thousands of slaves ran away or were emancipated
to join in the fighttheir fightfor freedom.
8
When the time came, many African Americans took a
long hard look at military service which offered
  • shelter
  • education
  • steady pay
  • medical attention
  • and a pension

9
When the Civil War ended in 1865, 186,000 former
slaves and freedmen had served in the United
States Colored Troops (USCT),10 of the total
Union strength. Another 30,000 served in the Navy
and 200,000 more served as workers on labor,
hospital engineering, and other military support
projects taps sounded over the bodies of 38,000.
Though they had not lived free, they died free.
10
In 1866, one year after the end of the Civil War
and more than six months after the 13th Amendment
abolishing slavery was enacted, Congress had the
need to reorganize the peacetime regular army.
Recognizing the military merits of black
soldiers, four black infantry regiments and two
regiments of black cavalry were authorized,
composed of former slaves, freedmen and Black
Civil War veterans. They were designated as the
38th, 39th, 40th and 41st United States Infantry
Regiments and the 9th and 10th United States
Cavalry Regiments.
Thus began the Legend of the Buffalo Soldiers,
the first African Americans to serve during
peacetime.
11

How The Buffalo Soldiers Got Their Name
The nickname Buffalo Soldier began with the
Cheyenne warriors in 1867. The black soldiers
were ferocious and courageous in battle, even
when outnumbered. Out of respect, the Cheyenne
referred to these hard-fighting black men in blue
as "Buffalo Soldiers" - reportedly because their
hair resembled that of the revered bison. To the
Plains Indians, the buffalo was a symbol of
strength and courage - characteristics easily
identified with the black troops of the West.
Because the Buffalo was a sacred animal to the
Indians, the Cavalrymen accepted the title with
great pride. Proudly adopted, the name became a
highly respected American legacy.
12
The Buffalo Soldiers Fought with Distinction
  • In the Cheyenne War from 1867 to 1869.
  • In the Red River War of 1874-1875
  • In the Ute War of 1879
  • In the Apache Wars from 1875 through 1886
  • And in the Sioux War of 1890-1891

13
No less than thirteen Congressional Medals of
Honor were presented to Buffalo Soldiers during
the Western Campaign.
14
In the end, 23 black soldiers of the Ninth and
Tenth Cavalry Regiments won the Medal of Honor,
the highest award this country gives for
outstanding performance under enemy fire.
15
The Bravest of the Brave9th Cavalry
Congressional Medal of Honor Recipients
We Can, We Will
  • Sergeant Thomas Boyne
  • Second Lieutenant, George R. Burnett
  • Second Lieutenant Matthias W. Day
  • Sergeant John Denny
  • Second Lieutenant Robert Temple Emmet
  • Captain Francis S. Dodge
  • Corporal Clinton Greaves,
  • Sergeant Henry Johnson
  • Sergeant George Jordan
  • Sergeant Thomas Shaw
  • Sergeant Emanuel Stance
  • Private Augustus Walley
  • 1st Sergeant Moses Williams
  • Corporal William O. Wilson
  • Sergeant Brent Wood

9th US Cavalry
16
The Bravest of the Brave10th Cavalry
Congressional Medal of Honor Recipients
Ready and Forward
  • Captain Louis H. Carpenter
  • Sergeant Major Edward L. Baker
  • Second Lieutenant Powhattan H. Clarke
  • Private Dennis Bell
  • Private Fitz Lee
  • Sergeant William McBryar
  • Sergeant William Tompkins
  • Private George H. Wanton

10th US Cavalry
17
The service of the Buffalo Soldiers was not
limited to fighting Indians in the early years.
They
  • Explored and yielded maps of uncharted wilderness
    which paved the way for on-coming pioneer
    settlers
  • Assisted civil authorities in controlling mobs
  • Pursued outlaws, cattle thieves, and even Mexican
    revolutionaries along the border
  • Built or renovated dozens of posts and camps
  • Constructed thousands of miles of roads and
    telegraph lines, and patrols

18
The Buffalo Soldiers
  • Protected work crews building the
    transcontinental railroad
  • Served as the first US Border Patrol
  • Protected the giant redwoods of California before
    the establishment of the US Forest Service

19
And, The Buffalo Soldiers
  • Protected settlers
  • Rode shotgun on stagecoaches
  • Escorted wagon trains
  • Delivered mail longer than the Pony Express

20
The valor and exemplary service of the Buffalo
Soldiers did not end on the Western Frontier.
  • The 9th and 10th went on to serve with Teddy
    Roosevelt and the Rough Riders" as they stormed
    up San Juan Hill.
  • They not only were with him, but played an
    important role in the battle.
  • Official and unofficial reports of this battle
    are recorded in Record Group 391, US Regular army
    Mobile Units, 1821-1942.

21
The Buffalo Soldiers
  • Fought and died in the First and Second World
    Wars and the Korean Conflict

22
And
  • 10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers served with
    distinction under officer  "Black Jack" Pershing.
  • The rest is history

23
In reports from their white officers, the words
bravery, discipline, fearlessness, and
endurance were consistently present. The
Buffalo Soldiers rode, fought, and conducted
themselves in the highest tradition of military
service. Their record is one in which all
Americans can take pride.
24
Despite this record of achievement, the Buffalo
Soldiers faced constant prejudice and
discrimination. Much of the recognition for their
efforts was robbed by jealous leaders. Often
simple justice could not be found. Such
detriments may have destroyed the morale of many
other military units, but they failed to do so
with the proud Ninth and Tenth.
25
Of all American soldiers, they had the hardest
fight. There was not only the enemy to defeat,
but the hearts and minds of their fellow soldiers
to be won. The Buffalo Soldiers had the lowest
desertion rate in the Army. They were
  • Recipients of hand-me-down uniforms, equipment
    and weapons
  • Given broken-down horses
  • Beneficiaries of poor diets
  • Subjected to the harshest punishment
  • Under the jurisdiction of racist officers
  • Posted in the worst part of the country in
    hostile environments

26
Finally, the All-Black, and ever-proud 9th and
10th Calvary Regiments were integrated. The
Year was 1952...eighty-six years after being
commissioned. The end of an era. The end of an
important saga of American History.
27
Buffalo Soldiers from every state in the Union
served bravely and with honors. They received
many honors, including
  • Twenty-three Congressional Medals of Honor
  • Thirteen Campaign Citations in the Western Wars
  • Campaign Citations for the Spanish-American War,
    the
  • Philippine Insurrection, the
  • Mexican Expedition and
  • The French Campaign
  • World War I Citations
  • Five Unit Citations from World War II
  • Ten Unit Citations from the Korean Conflict
  • Three Presidential Unit Citations
  • A Navy Unit Commendation
  • A Philippine Presidential Citation and
  • Two Republic of Korea Presidential Citations.

28
The Buffalo Soldiers have been honored for their
bravery and service, more than any other American
Military Unit. Yet, in spite of their great
sacrifices and outstanding performance, the
Buffalo Soldiers were not fully recognized or
appreciated by their country until 1992. 
29
On July 25, 1992, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, on
the exact site where the Buffalo Soldiers lived
and died, a magnificent homage to their spirit
and legacy was erected a bronze statue
commissioned by General Colin Powell, a great
tribute to the Buffalo Soldiers!  
Lest We Forget
30
The monument was constructed to honor, for all
time, the heroic contribution made by these Black
American Heroes, and paid for totally from
private and corporate funds in a fundraising
effort spearhead by Commander Carlton Philpot, U.
S. Navy Retired, guest speaker at the historical
event.
Buffalo Soldiers Memorial, Fort Leavenworth,
Kansas
31
Theirs was a great Legacy of Leadership and
Excellence.
The Buffalo Soldiers
32
The Legacy of the Buffalo Soldiers The
Motorcycle Club
33
The National Association of Buffalo Soldiers and
Troopers Motorcycle Clubs
  • In 1993, the first chapter of Buffalo Soldiers
    Motorcycle Clubs was founded in Chicago by Ken
    Dream Maker Thomas to socialize men and women
    who shared similar ideals and the common bond of
    motorcycling.
  • The name was chosen to uphold and perpetuate the
    heroic legend of the original Buffalo Soldiers
    and the legacy of excellence of the African
    American soldiers who followed.

Visionary, perpetuator, pioneer originator,
trail-blazer, leader, trend-setter, paradigm,
vanguard, originator, precursor
DREAM MAKER
34
The National Association of Buffalo Soldiers and
Troopers Motorcycle Clubs
  • Today, what began as a small group has blossomed
    into a premier organization with 91 chapters
    throughout the continental United States,
    including Hawaii, and two International chapters
    in Nova Scotia and Ontario, Canada
  • The membership of over 2000 soldiers is made
    up of current and retired military, law
    enforcement officers, doctors, lawyers,
    legislators and public officials, educators, and
    a variety of other professionals dedicated to the
    improvement of their communities and the advocacy
    of safe and enjoyable motorcycling

35
The National Association of Buffalo Soldiers and
Troopers Motorcycle Clubs
  • NABSTMC members perpetuate the grand memory of
    the Legendary Buffalo Soldiers by spreading the
    legacy throughout the nation and abroad, through
    programs such as this, in schools, churches,
    institutions, and other organizations
  • NABSTMC members love to ride, but take equal
    pride in conveying a positive image, especially
    to youth
  • The NABSMC and affiliated chapters support
    charitable organizations such as the March of
    Dimes, the Tom Joyner Foundation, the American
    Cancer Society, Toys for Tots, the Juvenile
    Diabetes Foundation, and many more.

36
Retrace 200431 July
  • In 2004, the National organization staged a
    historic ride to the Buffalo Soldiers Monument at
    Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
  • This event involved the participation of nearly
    500 members from all over the United States
  • Leaving from various destinations, all came
    together at Fort Leavenworth to retrace the steps
    of the original 9th and 10th Cavalry Buffalo
    Soldiers of the late 1800s.

At 1130 am, a motorcade of over 400 bikes, with
members dressed in black and gold, slowly began
moving with military precision from the Kansas
City International Expo Center to Fort Leavenworth
37
Retrace 2004
  • The Organization created this event to honor and
    perpetuate the history of those brave troopers
    who fought so gallantly on the Great Plains
    during the Indian Wars
  • Aside from paying tribute to the Legendary
    Buffalo Soldiers, members wanted to effect a
    resurgence of pride to carry back to their
    respective communities
  • For most, it was the first time they were able to
    see, touch and experience the part of history
    they talked about in countless seminars across
    the country

BSMC Founder, Ken Dream Maker Thomas speaks to
crowd during ceremony
38
Retrace 2004
  • The Memorial Ceremony, held at the Monument, was
    open to all military and DOD personnel stationed
    at Fort Leavenworth

A solemn wreath-laying ceremony was performed by
a contingent of color guards clothed in replica
Buffalo Soldier uniforms and NABSTMC officers
39
Retrace 2004
  • The ceremony had a very special ending as the
    ashes of Master Sergeant Robert E. Phillips were
    buried in the earth at the site of the Buffalo
    Soldier Monument
  • Thomas TC Costley, spokesperson and organizer
    of the event (pictured left), thanked the
    Phillips family for the privilege and pledged
    that the club would proudly execute the ceremony
    with all of the honor and dignity it deserves.

There is no greater honor than to be asked to
conduct this type of ceremony for a veteran,
said Thomas.
40
Retrace 2004
  • Following the ceremony, members visited the
    Richard Allen Cultural Center Museum in the town
    of Leavenworth, Kansas
  • Later that evening, POWs and MIAs were honored
    in a moving program
  • This was an historic event that those who
    participated will always remember

A flag was placed at the site by a member of each
NABSTMC Chapter represented
41
Generations of Buffalo Soldiers
42
The Legendary Buffalo Soldiers, 9th Cavalry
43
Late 1800's photograph of members of the 10th
Cavalry (Buffalo Soldiers). Augustus Walley (top
row, 2nd from right, with the bandana around his
neck), a former slave from Bond Avenue in
Reisterstown, MD, won the Congressional Medal of
Honor.
44
Congressional Medal of Honor Awardee, Augustus
Walley
45
A member of the Ninth U. S. Cavalry band, about
1890.
46
Saturday inspection, Troop I, Tenth Cavalry, Fort
Robinson, about 1904
47
The 10th Cavalry, stationed at Fort Custer,
Montana, pose for lunch
48
A staged charge by the 10th Cavalry. The Cavalry
usually left their sabers in their barracks. The
swords rattled created noise that could give away
a troopers position.
49
A 10th Cavalry Color Guard, probably photographed
in 1917 or 1918
50
The men of "A" Company 10th Cavalry at their
barracks at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. The year is
1928.
51
The 9th Cavalry, "K" Company in Pine Ridge, South
Dakota. This photograph was taken during the
winter of 1890-91. Note the heavier coats (many
Buffalo hide), and hats. Two men pictured here
are Medal of Honor Winners- George Jordan,
seated, and Henry Johnson, standing in rear.
52
This is the 9th Cavalry assembled as part of a
unit portrait - made probably in the late 1880's.
53
The 9th Cavalry F troop around the turn of the
Century. This picture was made in either Florida
or Georgia and may be of maneuvers just before
the Spanish American War fought in Cuba.
54
A 10th Cavalry soldier in general issue
buffalo-hide coat for winter duty. Photo was
taken in the late 1870s.
55
The 10th Cavalry in dress blue uniforms passes in
review. This picture was taken in 1938 at Fort
Huachuca, Arizona.
56
Buffalo Soldiers mount their horses around the
turn of the Century. This photo was taken in
Florida or Georgia as troopers prepared for
battle in Cuban during the Spanish American War
of 1898.
57
These Buffalo Soldiers display their riding
prowess with a drill known as "Roman Riding." The
9th and 10th Cavalry worked hard at equestrian
demonstrations and were favorites of reviews at
most posts where they performed.
58
The Legend from West Point
59
Born into slavery, Henry Ossian Flipper became
the first
African American to graduate
from West Point
  • In 1873, James Freeman, a newly-elected Georgia
    Congressman, recommended Flippers appointment
    after he proved himself to be worthy and
    qualified.
  • He was the 5th African American excepted to
    attend the Academy he was 17 years old at the
    time.
  • Treated with extreme prejudice as a cadet,
    Flipper excelled in engineering, law, French and
    Spanish.
  • Flipper described his successful struggle against
    ostracism and prejudice in The Colored Cadet at
    West Point (1878).

60
His assignment to the 10th Cavalry in 1877 was
the realization of a dream.
  • Flippers military career was cut short when he
    was impartially accused of embezzlement and
    falsifying records.
  • In a trial shrouded in prejudice, he was found
    guilty of lying and sentenced to dismissal from
    the US Army.

61
A divided court-martial acquitted Flipper of
charges of embezzle-ment but pronounced him
guilty of "conduct unbecoming an officer and a
gentleman."
Lt. Flippers court-martial was held at the
chapel at Fort Davis, pictured.
A short statement penned by President Chester
upheld the sentence of the court, despite
prejudice surrounding the trial.
62
Henry Ossian Flipper
  • Flippers discharge signaled the end of one of
    the most envied of military careers
  • After his dismissal, he went on to gain
    recognition and respect as a surveyor and opened
    his own engineering firm
  • During the years following his dismissal, Flipper
    maintained his innocence and sought to clear his
    name and restore his rank 8 times unsuccessfully

63
Henry Ossian Flipper American Hero
  • In 1976, the US Army deemed the sentence handed
    down was too severe for the charge, and
    posthumously awarded Flipper an honorable
    discharge.
  • 23 years later, on February 19, 1999, 117 years
    after being charged with conduct unbecoming an
    officer and a gentleman and 59 years after his
    death, he was pardoned posthumously by President
    Bill Clinton
  • His story not only represents a milestone in
    African American history, but in the history of
    America as well

64
Other Buffalo Soldiers who graduated from West
Point include
  • John Hanks Alexander
  • Charles Young

65
Other Buffalo Soldiers who graduated from West
Point
  • John Hanks Alexander, almost unnoticed in Army
    history, was the son of former slaves
  • Hanks was the second black to become an officer
    in the regular Army
  • Charles Young became the third black regular Army
    line officer in 1889. An outstanding officer, he
    eventually would reach the grade of Colonel.
  • In 1896, he set a new precedent by transferring
    to the 7th Cavalry, a white regiment, where he
    remained on the rolls for one year.

Cadet Charles Young
66
Female Buffalo Soldier
67
The Female Buffalo Soldier, Cathay Williams aka
William Cathy
  • Was born into slavery in Independence, Missouri
    in 1842.
  • Enlisted in the army in 1866
  • Served until 1868, when she became ill, was
    examined and found to be a woman.
  • After leaving the army as a soldier, she worked
    as a cook for an officer at Fort Union.

68
Female Buffalo Soldier, Cathay Williams aka
William Cathy
Cathay Williams was assured a place in history as
the only documented female Buffalo Soldier, and
as the only documented African-American woman who
served in the U.S. army prior to the 1948 law,
which officially allowed women to join the army.
69
The Last of the Legends
70
Original Buffalo Soldiergone but not forgotten
  • 1st Sergeant Mark Mathews was the oldest
    surviving Buffalo Soldier in the United States
    Army until September 6, 2005 when he died
  • One of 1st Sgt. Mark Matthews' duties was
    assisting in the 1916 search for Pancho Villa in
    Mexico
  • He was 111 when he died. He is interred in
    Arlington National Cemetery

Mark Matthews, August 7, 1894 September 6, 2005
71
1st Sergeant Mark Mathews
1st Sergeant Mark Mathews, former Buffalo
Soldier, poses in his old Cavalry Uniform
"I did it all," Sgt. Matthews told The Washington
Post a few years ago. "Yes, I was there."
72
1st Sergeant Mark Mathews
Matthews joined the Buffalo Soldiers when he was
fifteen years old. "I had to wait awhile before I
could get on duty. But then they shipped me to
the West."
73
Stillthe Legend Lives on
the Last of the Original
Buffalo Soldiers
  • Dr. William H. Waddell, at 97, was the last and
    oldest living member of the Buffalo Soldiers
    after the death of First Sergeant Mark Mathews is
    deceased. Dr. Waddell passed away in January
    2007
  • Dr. Waddell served in both the 9th and 10th
    Cavalry Divisions in the Italian Campaign during
    World War II

74
The Last of the Original Buffalo Soldiers
  • While overseeing the care of 10,000 horses as
    well as many mules, Dr. Waddells mule was shot,
    in 1944, by German forces. The impact knocked Dr.
    Waddell off his mount and the enemy continued
    shooting at him, causing him to suffer a wound to
    his neck.
  • He spent 90 days in a field hospital in North
    Africa before returning to active duty with his
    troops.

Dr. Waddell
75
  • A pioneer, Dr. Waddell was the first faculty
    member at Tuskegee Universitys School of
    Veterinary Medicine (1945-1948)
  • In 2003, he received the honorary Order of St.
    Martin when honored at Tuskegee
  • Before his death Dr. Waddell, veterinarian,
    entrepreneur, leader, husband, father,
    researcher, student, retired to the eastern shore
    of Oahu, Hawaii

At a recent event, Waddell says, "I bring you
greetings from the Buffalo Soldier way of
thinking. I represent the Buffalo Soldiers of
this world - those who died for this country,
those who fought overseas.
76
Member of heralded Buffalo Soldiers continues to
be honored
  • A 1931 Lincoln University graduate, Waddell was
    one of three honorary degree recipients at the
    Universitys 145th Commencement ceremonies on May
    2, 2004

77
Keeping the Legend AliveBuffalo Soldiers of the
21st Century
78
The Buffalo Soldiers Today
  • African-American military men and women continue
    to serve their country in all ranks and branches
    of the military. An integrated 10 Calvary
    marches on.
  • In 1966 during the Vietnam Conflict, the 10th
    Cavalry, deployed as part of the 4th Infantry
    Division
  • In 2003 they were deployed to Southwest Asia in
    support of Operation Iraqi Freedom

79
The Buffalo Soldiers Today
  • For most of its existence, the Buffalo Soldiers
    were black soldiers commanded by white officers
  • Lt. Colonel Reginald Allen was the first African
    American to command the 1sr Squadron, 10th US
    Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers in combat

We go where were told and we win when we
fight, says Allen.
We CanWe Will - Ready and Forward
80
The Buffalo Soldiers Today Serve Proudly in Iraq
  • Allens first mission was securing the porous
    Iran/Iraq border and keeping foreign fighters and
    Iranian influence out of Iraq
  • While other forces have settled into Saddam
    Hussein's palaces, the Buffalo Soldiers have
    moved some 16 times within Iraq since the
    U.S.-led coalition invasion of that country.

81
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