Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

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Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System


1
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System
2
Cardiovascular System
  • Also circulatory system
  • Consists of the heart, arteries, veins,
    capillaries

3
Heart
  • Four chamber muscular organ
  • Comparable to the size of a closed fist
  • Located in the mediastinum

4
Heart
5
Coverings of the Heart
  • Pericardium loose fitting sac surrounding the
    heart
  • Fibrous pericardium tough, loose-fitting,
    inelastic
  • Serous pericardium
  • Parietal layer lines the inside of the fibrous
    pericardium
  • Visceral layer adheres to outside of the heart
  • Pericardial space between parietal and visceral
    layer
  • Filled with 10-15mL of pericardial fluid
  • Decreases friction

6
Walls of the Heart
  • Epicardium outer layer
  • Epicardium serous pericardium
  • Myocardium thick, contractile layer composed of
    cardiac muscle cells
  • Endocaridium interior of cardiac wall

7
Walls of the Heart
8
Chambers of the Heart
  • Atria two superior chambers
  • Receiving chambers
  • Blood from veins enters atria
  • Ventricles two inferior chambers
  • pumping chambers
  • Separated by interventricular septum

9
Valves of the Heart
  • Permit blood flow in one direction during
    circulation
  • Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)
  • Also cuspid valves
  • Between atria and ventricles
  • Semilunar (SL valves)
  • Between ventricles and vessles

10
Chambers Valves
Trace the blood flow through the heart
11
Blood Supply to the Heart
  • After traveling through the capillaries of the
    heart, blood empties into the R atrium via the
    coronary sinus

12
Conduction System of the Heart
  • Four structures composed of modified cardiac
    muscle
  • Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
  • Pacemaker of the heart
  • 100s of cells in the R atrium near the opening of
    the superior vena cava
  • Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)
  • Left lower border of R atrium

13
Conduction System of the Heart
  • Atrioventricular Bundle
  • Also Bundle of His
  • Bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers
    originating in the AV node
  • Branches into R and L branches eventually
    becoming Purkinje fibers
  • Extend into the walls of the ventricles and
    papillary muscles

14
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Artery carries oxygenated blood away from the
    heart
  • Arteriole small artery
  • Precapillary sphincters regulate the blood flow
    into capillaries

15
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Vein carries unoxygenated blood towards the
    heart
  • Great ability to stretch (capacitance)
  • Function as reservoirs blood pools in the valves
    then is pushed forward from the pumping pressure
  • Venules small vein

16
Types of Blood Vessels
17
Types of Blood Vessels
  • Capillaries arterial system switches to venous
    system
  • primary exchange vessels
  • Transport materials to and from the cells
  • Speed of blood flow decreases to increase contact
    time

18
Types of Blood Vessels
19
Structure of Blood Vessels
  • Tunica adventitia - outermost layer
  • Fibrous connective tissue
  • Holds vessels open prevents tearing of vessels
    walls during body movements
  • Larger in veins than arteries
  • Tunica media middle layer
  • Smooth muscle and elastic CT
  • Helps vessels constrict and dilate
  • Larger in arteries

20
Structure of Blood Vessels
  • Tunica intima innermost layer
  • Composed of endothelium
  • Semilunar valves present in veins
  • One cell thick in capillaries

21
Circulatory Routes
  • Systemic Circulation blood flow from the L
    ventricle to the body back to the R atrium
  • Pulmonary Circulation blood flow from the R
    ventricle to the lungs and back to the L atrium

22
Circulatory Routes
23
Aorta
24
Systemic Arteries
  • Arch of aorta
  • Subclavian (L and R)
  • Brachiocephalic
  • common carotid (L and R)
  • Axillary (L and R)
  • Brachial (L and R)
  • Radial
  • Ulnar
  • Abdominal aorta
  • Common iliac
  • External iliac
  • Femoral
  • Popliteal
  • Posterior tibial
  • Anterior tibial
  • Dorsal pedis

25
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26
Systemic Veins
  • Superior vena cava
  • Inferior vena cava
  • External jugular
  • Internal jugular
  • Brachiocephalic (L and R)
  • Subclavian (L and R)
  • Cephalic
  • axillary
  • Basilic
  • Median basilic
  • Median cubital
  • Common iliac
  • External iliac
  • Femoral
  • Popliteal
  • Great saphenous
  • Small saphenous

27
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28
Fetal Circulation
  • Two umbilical arteries carry blood to the
    placenta
  • The placenta allows for exchange of oxygen and
    nutrients from the mother. Maternal and fetal
    blood do NOT mix.
  • Umbilical vein returns oxygenated blood and
    enters fetus via the umbilicus
  • Foramen ovale hole btwn the R and L atria
  • Allows for blood to bypass the R ventricle and
    pulmonary circulation

29
Changes After Birth
  • Umbilical vein become round ligament
  • Umbilical arteries become umbilical ligaments
  • Foramen ovale closes after first few breaths
  • Full closure may take up to 9 months
  • Ductus arteriosus contracts as soon as
    respirations begin
  • Become fibrous cord

30
Pericardium Disorders
  • Pericarditis inflammation of the heart
  • Causes trauma, viral or bacteria infection,
    tumor
  • Edema causes visceral and parietal layers to rub
    together chest pain
  • Pus or blood build up in pericardial space
  • S/S
  • Pain with respirations or coughing, dyspnea,
    restlessness
  • Complications Pericardial Effusion, Cardiac
    Tamponade
  • Treatment
  • Antibiotics, pain meds, antiinflammatory meds,
    pericardiocentesis (Cardiac Tamponade)

31
Cardiac Tamponade
32
Heart Valve Disorders
  • General Principles
  • Congenital defect decreased pumping efficiency
  • Incompetent valve leak allows backflow into
    previous chamber
  • Stenosed valves narrowed valve slowing blood
    from out of chamber

33
Heart Valve Disorders
  • Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP)
  • Flaps of mitral valve extend back into L atrium
    causes leaking
  • Mostly genetic basis
  • 1 in 20 people
  • S/S most asymptomatic chest pain, fatigue
  • Treatment valvuloplasty

34
Mitral Valve Prolapse
35
Heart Valve Disorders
  • Aortic Regurgitation
  • Blood leaks back into L ventricle during ejection
    into the aorta
  • Volume overload in L ventricle, hypertrophy,
    dilation of L ventricle
  • Complications myocaridal ischemia
  • Treatment valvuloplasty

36
Myocardium Disorders
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Type of arteriosclerosis
  • Lipids build up on the inside of vessel walls ?
    calcify ? vessels hard brittle
  • Risk factors cigarette smoking, high
    fat/cholesterol diet, hypertension

37
Atherosclerosis
38
Myocardium Disorders
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Heart Attack
  • Coronary thrombosis clot
  • Coronary embolism mobilized clot
  • Occlude coronary artery ? heart tissue deprived
    of oxygen ? cell death
  • S/S
  • Angina pectoris severe chest pain resulting
    from inadequate oxygen to myocardium
  • Treatment Coronary Bypass Surgery
  • Veins are harvested from other areas of the body
    and used to bypass obstructions

39
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40
Myocardium Disorders
  • Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
  • Left-sided Heart Failure
  • Inability of the L ventricle to pump blood
    efficiently
  • Causes myocardial infarction
  • S/S decreased pumping pressure in systemic
    circulation retained fluids
  • Can lead to congestion in pulmonary circulation ?
    pulmonary edema ? right-sided heart failure
  • Treatment heart transplant

41
Congestive Heart Failure
42
Myocardium Disorders
  • Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
  • Leading cause of death in US
  • General term to describe decreased blood flow to
    myocardium associated side effects

43
Disorders of the Arteries
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Arteries become occluded, weak and hardened
  • Complications ischemia, necrosis, gangrene
  • Risk factors age, diabetes, high fat/cholesterol
    diet, hypertension, smoking
  • Treatment vasodilators, angioplasty, stent
    placement, bypass surgery
  • Complications aneurysm

44
Angioplasty
45
Disorders of Veins
  • Varicose Veins
  • Enlarged veins caused by pooling
  • Results in varicosities or varices (spider
    veins)
  • Risk factors standing for long periods
  • Semilunar valves widen ? more pooling
  • Treatment compression stockings, surgical removal

46
Varicose Veins
47
Disorders of Veins
  • Phlebitis vein inflammation
  • Causes irritation by IV catheter
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • Phlebitis caused by a clot
  • S/S
  • Pain, redness, swelling
  • Complications
  • Pulmonary embolism

48
DVT
49
Pulmonary Embolism
50
Venous Stasis Ulcers
  • Result of chronic vein insufficiency
  • Lack of oxygen to peripheral tissues
  • Elevate leg apply pressure
  • Irregular edges
  • Aching pain

51
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
52
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)
53
Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)
54
Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)
55
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
56
Transposition of the Great Vessels (TGV)
57
Coarcatation of the Aorta (CoA)
58
Ebsteins Anomaly
59
Pulmonary Atresia
60
Truncus Arteriosus
61
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
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