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The Tissue Level of Organization

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Chapter 4 The Tissue Level of Organization Lecture Outline * Principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 11e * INTRODUCTION A tissue is a group of similar cells that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Tissue Level of Organization


1
Chapter 4
  • The Tissue Level of Organization
  • Lecture Outline

2
INTRODUCTION
  • A tissue is a group of similar cells that usually
    have a similar embryological origin and are
    specialized for a particular function.
  • Histology The study of tissues
  • Pathologists physicians who specialize in
    laboratory studies of cells and tissues, aid
    other physicians in making diagnoses and they
    perform autopsies.

3
TYPES OF TISSUES AND THEIR ORIGINS
  • 1. Epithelial Tissue
  • 2. Connective Tissue
  • 3. Muscle Tissue
  • 4. Nervous Tissue

4
Epithelial Tissue
  • 1. Epithelial Tissue
  • covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body
    cavities, and ducts and forms glands.

5
Connective Tissue
  • 2. Connective Tissue
  • protects and supports the body and its organs,
    binds organs together, stores energy reserves as
    fat, and provides immunity. (Fat, Blood, Tendons)

6
Muscle Tissue
  • 3. Muscle Tissue
  • is responsible for movement and generation of
    force.
  • Examples Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth (stomach,
    intestine)

7
TYPES OF TISSUES AND THEIR ORIGINS
  • 4. Nervous Tissue
  • initiates and transmits action potentials (nerve
    impulses) that help coordinate body activities.

8
CELL JUNCTIONS
  • Cell junctions are points of contact where 2
    tissues meet.
  • Depending on their structure, cell junctions may
    serve one of three functions.
  • Tight cell junctions form
  • fluid-tight seals between cells.
  • 2. Desosome cell junctions anchor
  • cells together or to
  • extracellular material.
  • 3. Gap Junctions act as channels,
  • which allow ions and molecules
  • to pass from cell to cell within
  • a tissue.

9
TISSUE REPAIR RESTORE HOMEOSTASIS
  • Tissue repair is the process that replaces worn
    out, damaged, or dead cells.
  • Different tissues can be repaired in different
    ways
  • Epithelial cells are replaced by the division of
    stem cells.
  • Connective tissue Bone is easily replaced and
    repaired, cartilage is not (think torn ACL)!
  • Muscle cells have a poor capacity for renewal.
  • Nervous tissue has the poorest capacity for
    renewal. (think spinal cord injuries)

10
Tissue Repair Restoring Homeostasis
  • Fibrosis is the process of scar formation.
  • Scars are made up of collagen and other proteins.
    Scar tissue on important organs causes them to
    function incorrectly.

11
Cystic Fibrosis
  • Cystic Fibrosis a disease passed down through
    families that causes thick, sticky mucus to build
    up in the lungs, digestive tract, and other areas
    of the body. It is one of the most common chronic
    lung diseases in children and young adults. It is
    a life-threatening disorder.

12
Adhesions
  • Adhesions are formed when scar tissue from two
    tissues gets stuck to each other. This is
    painful and must be corrected by surgery.

13
Tissue Engineering
  • New tissues grown in the laboratory (skin
    cartilage)
  • Research in progress
  • insulin-producing cells (pancreas)
  • dopamine-producing cells (brain)
  • bone, tendon, heart valves, intestines bone
    marrow

14
Conditions Affecting Tissue Repair
  • Nutrition
  • adequate protein for structural components
  • vitamin C for production of collagen new blood
    vessels
  • Proper Blood Circulation
  • delivers O2 nutrients removes fluids
    bacteria
  • With Aging
  • collagen fibers change in quality
  • elastin fibers fragment and abnormally bond to
    calcium
  • cell division and protein synthesis are slowed

15
Sjogrens Syndrome
  • Autoimmune disorder producing exocrine gland
    inflammation
  • Dryness of mouth and eyes, less saliva produced
  • 20 of older adults show some signs
  • Females are affected 9 times more than men
  • Cannot be cured, but symptoms can be managed by
    using eye drops and chewing gum

16
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  • Commonly known as Lupus
  • Cause is unknown
  • Tissue throughout the body is damaged
  • Females 91 (1 in 2000 individuals)
  • Nonwhite women during childbearing years are most
    affected
  • Painful joints, ulcers, loss of hair, fever
  • Life-threatening if inflammation occurs in major
    organs --- liver, kidney, heart, brain, etc.
  • No cure, but some drugs can reduce symptoms
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