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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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Title: MUSCULAR SYSTEM


1
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
2
Muscle Fibers
Cardiac Only in heart.Striated/Branched/involun
tary.Joined by intercalated discs. Contract at a
steady rate.
Skeletal Attach to skeleton. Straited/Cigar-shap
ed/voluntary. Slow to fast contraction. Non-rhymth
ic.
Smooth Walls of visceral organs. No
striations/fusiform/involuntary. Slow
contraction.Rhythmic contractions.
Cardio heart
3
Muscle Functions
  1. Movement
  2. Posture
  3. Joint Stability
  4. Heat

http//www.argosymedical.com/Muscular/samples/anim
ations/Gymnast/index.html
Interactive Muscle Functions http//health.howstu
ffworks.com/human-body/systems/musculoskeletal/ada
m-200005.htm
4
Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle
Vocabulary to Know
Myofibril long ribbonlike organelles that push
nuclei aside Sarcomere chains of contractile
units making up myofibrils Myosin thick
filaments of muscle cells Actin thin filaments
of muscle cells Motor Unit one neuron and its
skeletal musclesAction Potential electrical
current that causes contractions Sliding Filament
Theory (Pg 163 Fig 6.8)
5
Muscle Contraction http//www.wisc-online.com/obje
cts/ViewObject.aspx?IDAP2904
6
Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle
Flash Muscle Structure and Function
Demo Muscle model
7
Anatomy of a Skeletal Muscle
ACTIN
MYOSIN
8
Micromovement of a Skeletal Muscle
ACTIN
MYOSIN
9
Micromovement of a Skeletal Muscle
10
Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle as a Whole
  • Graded Responses different degrees of
    shortening
  • Can be produced 2 ways
  • Change of speed of muscle contraction.
  • Muscle Twitches nerve impulses are
    delivered too fast for the cells to relax between
    impulses results are summed and contraction is
    stronger and smoother.
  • TETANUS when stimulation is so rapid no
  • relaxation occurs and contractions are
  • completely smooth and sustained.
  • (not to be confused with the disease Tetanus
  • which is a result of a bacteria found on
  • rusty metal)

11
Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle as a Whole
2. Change of number of muscles cells
stimulated. More cells stimulated stronger
contraction.
12
Getting it DoneProviding Energy for Muscle
Contraction
  • Three pathways for ATP generation (pg 165 Fig
    6.10)
  • Direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine
    phosphate
  • Phosphorylation adding a phosphate
  • CP creatine phosphate

DIRECT PHOSPHORYLATION with
CREATINE PHOSPHATE
CP
CP
ADP
ADP
ATP
Creatine
Phospho phosphate
13
Getting it DoneProviding Energy for Muscle
Contraction
  • Three pathways for ATP generation (cont.)
  • Anaerobic Respiration
  • Glycolysis (splitting glucose)Lactic Acid
    Formation

ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
Glycogen
Glucose
ATP
NO OXYGEN!
Pyruvic Acid
Lactic Acid
14
Getting it DoneProviding Energy for Muscle
Contraction
  • Three pathways for ATP generation (cont.)
  • 3. Aerobic Respiration
  • Glycolysis (splitting glucose)Krebs Cycle (36
    ATP) (in mitochondrion)

AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Glucose
ATP
OXYGEN
Pyruvic Acid
Fatty Acids
mitochondrion
ATP
CO2
H2O
15
Getting it DoneProviding Energy for Muscle
Contraction
Muscle Fatigue when muscles are no longer able
to contract when stimulated. Oxygen Debt Cause
of muscle fatigue due to prolonged muscle
activity. The person cannot take in enough
oxygen to supply the needs of the muscle
cells. Muscles convert to Lactic Acid
fermentation.
16
Types of Muscle Contractions
Isotonic Contractions myofilaments slide,
muscle shortens, movement occurs. Isometric
Contractions myofilaments try to slide but
cant, muscle stays longer, no movement occurs.
17
Muscle Tone state of continuous partial
contraction
Result of systematic contraction of motor units
throughout the muscle.
18
Exercise and Muscles Use it or Lose it!
Unused muscles will atrophy (loose the ability to
function).
  • Types of Exercise
  • Aerobic/Endurance
  • Muscular Benefits strengthresistance to
    fatigue
  • flexibility
  • Increased blood supply
  • More mitochondria

Exercise http//player.discoveryeducation.com/inde
x.cfm?guidAssetId8DAEA47D-9574-4F33-A614-D582577A
2357blnFromSearch1productcodeUS
19
Exercise and Muscles Use it or Lose it!
Types of Exercise 2. Resistance Muscular
Benefits strengthincrease in
size Increased cell size and connective tissue.
Steroids http//player.discoveryeducation.com/inde
x.cfm?guidAssetId13D0EED0-337F-4960-8CCD-CBC1266A
5107blnFromSearch1productcodeUS
20
Types of Body Movements
Origin attachment point of muscle to bone (or
less moveable tissue structure). Insertion
attachment point of muscle to the moveable bone.
21
Types of Body Movements
Refer to pg 169-170 Fig 6.13
Flexion Extention Hyperextension Abduction Adducti
on Rotation Circumduction PronationSupination Inv
ersion Eversion DorsiflexionPlantar flexion
22
Types of Muscles
Muscles cant push they can only pull as they
contract.
Therefore, one set of muscles works against
another set.
This relationship allows a wide variety of
movements.
23
Types of Muscles
Prime mover most responsible for the
movement Antagonist opposes or reverses the
movement
Prime mover
Antagonist
24
Types of Muscles
Synergist muscle that stabilizes muscles not
involved in causing movement.
25
Types of Muscles
Fixator muscle that stabilizes the origin of a
prime mover not involved in causing movement.
26
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Muscles are named based on 7 criteria
  • Direction of muscle fibers.
  • Rectus (straight) runs parallel to a line.
  • Ex. Rectus femoris runs parallel to the femur.
  • Oblique (slanted) runs in a slant to a line.
  • Ex. External Oblique

27
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Muscles are named based on 7 criteria
2. Relative size of the muscle. Maximus
largest Ex. Gluteus maximus. Minimus
smallest Ex. Gluteus minimus. Longus
long Ex. Peroneus longus.
28
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Muscles are named based on 7 criteria
3. Location of the muscle. Named for the bone
with which they are associated. Ex. Temporalis
and Frontalis.
No, this is HUMAN anatomy!
29
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Muscles are named based on 7 criteria
4. Number of Origins. Bi 2 Tri 3 Quad
4 Ex. Biceps, Triceps, Quadriceps
5. Location of orgins and insertions Named for
attachment sites. Ex. Sternocleidomastoid
attaches at the sternum (sterno) and clavicle
(cleido) and inserts on the mastoid process
(mastoid)
30
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Muscles are named based on 7 criteria
6. Shape of the muscle Named for a distinctive
shape Ex. Deltoid (means triangular)
7. Action of the muscle Named for their
action. Ex. Flexor (flexes) extensor
(extends)adductor (adducts)
31
GROSS ANATOMY!
Gross Anatomy study of larger anatomical
features
First, lets review movements.
32
Types of Body Movements
Refer to pg 169-170 Fig 6.13
Flexion Extention Hyperextension Abduction Adducti
on Rotation Circumduction PronationSupination Inv
ersion Eversion DorsiflexionPlantar flexion
33
GROSS ANATOMY!
Gross Anatomy study of larger anatomical
features
Now lets see how the muscles cause those
movements.
Pages 182-185 Know Muscle Names and Actions
http//www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscularsystem/thig
hmuscles/anteriormuscles/gracilis/tutorial.html
Interactive muscle ID http//www.gwc.maricopa.edu/
class/bio201/muscle/mustut.htm
34
Assignment Make your own Table of Muscles and
Actions. In the first column, write the name of
the muscle. In the second column, write what it
does IN YOUR OWN WORDS. In the third column,
write the anatomical description of the action.
MUSCLE NAME ACTION ACTION (OWN WORDS)
Frontalis Raises eyebrows Lifts eyebrows up.
Biceps bronchii Flexes elbow and supinates forearm Lifts forearm up and twists forearm out.
35
MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT
During fetal development muscles are built in
sections like earthworms and then nerves added.
36
MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT
Muscular Problems Muscular Dystrophy Inherited
disease Muscles enlarge due to fat and
connective tissue deposits. Muscle fibers
degenerate and atrophy. Flash Duchennes
Muscular Dystrophy
37
MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT
Muscular Problems Myasthenia Gravis Attacks
adults Drooping eyelids, difficulty swallowing
and talking, weakness and fatigue. Shortage
of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular
junctions. Death usually occurs due to
respiratory failure.
Myo muscleasthen weaknessgravis heavy
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